Exhibit 21




The following table lists all of the subsidiaries of Synthetic Biologics, Inc. and the jurisdiction of incorporation of each subsidiary. Each subsidiary does business under its corporate name indicated in the table.


Subsidiary Name   Ownership   Jurisdiction of Incorporation
Pipex Therapeutics, Inc.   Wholly owned   Delaware
Effective Pharmaceuticals, Inc.   Wholly owned   Delaware
Solovax, Inc.   Majority-owned   Delaware
CD4 Biosciences, Inc.   Majority-owned   Delaware
Epitope Pharmaceuticals, Inc.   Majority-owned   Delaware
Healthmine, Inc.   Wholly owned   Delaware
Putney Drug Corp.   Wholly owned   Delaware
Synthetic Biomics, Inc.   Majority-owned   Nevada