Exhibit 21.1

SYNTHETIC BIOLOGICS, INC. SUBSIDIARIES

The following table lists all of the subsidiaries of Synthetic Biologics, Inc. and the jurisdiction of incorporation of each subsidiary. Each subsidiary does business under its corporate name indicated in the table.

Subsidiary Name

    

Ownership

    

Jurisdiction of Incorporation

Pipex Therapeutics, Inc.

 

Wholly owned

 

Delaware

Effective Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

 

Wholly owned

 

Delaware

Solovax, Inc.

 

Majority-owned

 

Delaware

CD4 Biosciences, Inc.

 

Majority-owned

 

Delaware

Epitope Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

 

Majority-owned

 

Delaware

Healthmine, Inc.

 

Wholly owned

 

Delaware

Putney Drug Corp.

 

Wholly owned

 

Delaware

Synthetic Biomics, Inc.

VCN Biosciences, S.L.

 

Wholly-owned

Wholly-owned

 

Nevada

Spain