Exhibit 1.1

 

Execution Version

 

 

SYNTHETIC BIOLOGICS, INC.

Shares of Common Stock

(par value $0.001 per share)

 

Amended and Restated At Market Issuance Sales Agreement

 

February 9, 2021

 

B. Riley Securities, Inc.

299 Park Avenue, 21st Floor

New York, NY 10171

 

A.G.P./Alliance Global Partners

590 Madison Ave.

New York, NY 10022

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Synthetic Biologics, Inc., a Nevada corporation (the “Company”), and B. Riley Securities, Inc. (formerly known as FBR Capital Markets & Co.) (“B. Riley Securities”) are parties to that certain At Market Issuance Sales Agreement dated August 5, 2016, as amended on May 7, 2018 (as amended, the “Original Agreement”). B. Riley Securities, together with A.G.P./Alliance Global Partners (“A.G.P.”); and each of B. Riley Securities and A.G.P. individually, an “Agent” and together, the “Agents”), and the Company desire to amend and restate the Original Agreement as set forth in this agreement (this “Agreement”), and hereby agree as follows:

 

1.                  Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through the Agents, shares of common stock (the shares to be offered and sold hereunder being referred to as the “Placement Shares”) of the Company, par value $0.001 per share (the “Common Stock”); provided, however, that in no event shall the Company issue or sell through the Agents such number or dollar amount of Placement Shares that would (a) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock registered on the effective Registration Statement (as defined below) pursuant to which the offering is being made, (b) exceed the number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock, (c) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock permitted to be sold under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6 thereof, if applicable) or (d) exceed the number or dollar amount of Common Stock for which the Company has filed a Prospectus Supplement (as defined below) (the lesser of (a), (b), (c) and (d), the “Maximum Amount”). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 1 on the number or the dollar amount of Placement Shares issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company and that the Agents shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of Placement Shares through the Agents will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) filed by the Company and declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) on May 15, 2018, although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement to issue the Placement Shares.

 

 

 

 

The Company has filed, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-224728), including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the rules and regulations thereunder. The Company has prepared a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus included as part of the registration statement, which prospectus supplement relates to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company pursuant to this Agreement (the “Prospectus Supplement”). The Company will furnish to the Agents, for use by the Agents, copies of the base prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, relating to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company. The Company may file, if necessary, one or more additional registration statements from time to time that will contain a base prospectus and related prospectus or prospectus supplement, if applicable (which shall be a Prospectus Supplement), with respect to the Placement Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement(s), including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement(s) pursuant to Rule 430B of the Securities Act, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The base prospectus or base prospectuses, including all documents incorporated or deemed incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, in the form in which such prospectus or prospectuses and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with the then issued Issuer Free Writing Prospectus(es) (defined below), is herein called the “Prospectus.”

 

Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, any Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents, if any, incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”), including, unless the context otherwise requires, the documents, if any, filed as exhibits to such Incorporated Documents. Any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, any Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act on or after the most-recent effective date of the Registration Statement, or the date of the Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as the case may be, and incorporated therein by reference. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include the most recent copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System, or if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).

 

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2.                  Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify an Agent (the “Designated Agent”) by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) of the number of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made (a “Placement Notice”), the form of which is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The receipt of each such Placement Notice shall be promptly acknowledged by the Designated Agent by email confirmation to the Company. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 3 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Designated Agent set forth on Schedule 3, as such Schedule 3 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective immediately upon receipt by the Designated Agent unless and until (i) the Designated Agent declines in writing to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, within two (2) Business Days (as defined below) of receipt, (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares thereunder has been sold, (iii) the Company, in its sole discretion, suspends or terminates the Placement Notice or (iv) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 12. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Designated Agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 2. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Designated Agent will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Designated Agent and the Designated Agent does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of Sections 2 or 3 of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

 

3.                  Sale of Placement Shares by Agents. The Designated Agent, for the period specified in a Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the NYSE American (the “Exchange”), to sell the Placement Shares up to the amount specified in, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of, such Placement Notice. The Designated Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the compensation payable by the Company to the Designated Agent pursuant to Section 2 with respect to such sales, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company, with an itemization of the deductions made by the Designated Agent (as set forth in Section 5(b)) from the gross proceeds that it receives from such sales. Subject to the terms of a Placement Notice, the Designated Agent agrees that all sales of the Placement Shares by the Designated Agent will be made only by methods permitted by law and deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act, including without limitation sales made directly on the Exchange, on any other existing trading market for the Common Stock or to or through a market maker. Subject to the terms of a Placement Notice, the Designated Agent may also sell Placement Shares by any other method permitted by law, including, but not limited to, in privately negotiated transactions. Notwithstanding the foregoing, no sale may be made in a privately negotiated transaction without the prior written consent of the Company. “Trading Day” means any day on which Common Stock is traded on the Exchange.

 

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4.                  Suspension of Sales. The Company or the Designated Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3), suspend any sale of Placement Shares (a “Suspension”); provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair any party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. While a Suspension is in effect, any obligation under Sections 7(l), 7(m), and 7(n) with respect to the delivery of certificates, opinions, or comfort letters to the Agents, shall be waived, provided, however, that such waiver shall not apply for the Representation Date (defined below) occurring on the date that the Company files its annual report on Form 10-K. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against any other party unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 3 hereto, as such Schedule may be amended from time to time.

 

5.                  Sale and Delivery to the Designated Agent; Settlement.

 

(a)               Sale of Placement Shares. On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Designated Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Designated Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified in, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of, such Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Designated Agent will be successful in selling Placement Shares, (ii) the Designated Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Designated Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) the Designated Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise agreed by the Designated Agent and the Company.

 

(b)               Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the third (3rd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”). The Designated Agent shall notify the Company of each sale of Placement Shares on the date of such sale. The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by the Designated Agent, after deduction for (i) the Designated Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, and (ii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

 

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(c)               Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting the Designated Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Designated Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee and such designee’s account information at least two Trading Days prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System (“DWAC”) or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, the Designated Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Designated Agent will be responsible for providing DWAC instructions or instructions for delivery by other means with respect to the transfer of the Placement Shares being sold. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver Placement Shares on a Settlement Date through no fault of the Designated Agent, then the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 10(a) hereto, it will (i) hold the Designated Agent harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or reasonable documented actual expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) and (ii) pay to the Designated Agent any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

 

(d)               Denominations; Registration. Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, shall be in such denominations and registered in such names as the Designated Agent may request in writing at least one full Business Day (as defined below) before the Settlement Date. The certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, will be made available by the Company for examination and packaging by the Designated Agent in The City of New York not later than noon (New York time) on the Business Day prior to the Settlement Date.

 

(e)               Limitations on Offering Size. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Shares, the aggregate gross sales proceeds of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of (A) together with all sales of Placement Shares under this Agreement, the Maximum Amount, (B) the amount available for offer and sale under the currently effective Registration Statement and (C) the amount authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive officers of the Company, and notified to the Designated Agent in writing. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee, and notified to the Designated Agent in writing. Further, under no circumstances shall the Company cause or permit the aggregate offering amount of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement to exceed the Maximum Amount.

 

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(f)                Sales Through Agents. The Company agrees that any offer to sell, any solicitation of an offer to buy, or any sales of Placement Shares shall only be effected by or through an Agent, and only a single Agent, on any single given date, and in no event shall the Company request that more than one Agent sell Shares on the same day.

 

6.                  Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with each of the Agents that as of the date of this Agreement and as of each Applicable Time (as defined below), except as set forth below:

 

(a)               Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement meet the requirements for and comply with the applicable conditions set forth in Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.A and I.B.6, if applicable) under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement has been filed with the Commission and has been declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act prior to the issuance of any Placement Notices by the Company. The Prospectus Supplement will name the Agents as the agents in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.” The Company has not received, and has no notice of, any order of the Commission preventing or suspending the use of the Registration Statement, or threatening or instituting proceedings for that purpose. The Registration Statement and the offer and sale of Placement Shares as contemplated hereby meet the requirements of Rule 415 under the Securities Act and comply in all material respects with said Rule. Any statutes, regulations, contracts or other documents that are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement have been or will be so described or filed. Copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, and any amendments or supplements thereto and all Incorporated Documents that were filed with the Commission on, prior to or after the date of this Agreement have been made available, or are available through EDGAR, to the Agents and their counsel. The Company has not distributed and, prior to the later to occur of each Settlement Date and completion of the distribution of the Placement Shares, will not distribute any offering material in connection with the offering or sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below) to which the Agents have consented (such consent not to be unreasonably withheld or delayed). The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and is currently listed on the Exchange under the trading symbol “SYN.” The Company has taken no action designed to, or likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from the Exchange, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or the Exchange is contemplating terminating such registration or listing (except as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus). Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, to the Company’s knowledge, it is in material compliance with all applicable listing requirements of the Exchange. The Company has no reason to believe that it will not in the foreseeable future continue to be in material compliance with all such listing and maintenance requirements, subject to changes in the market price of the Common Stock, which may from time to time be lower than the minimum allowed under the rules of the Exchange, subject to appropriate corrective action to be taken by the Company.

 

(b)               No Misstatement or Omission. The Registration Statement, when it became effective, did not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus and any amendment and supplement thereto, on the date thereof and at each Applicable Time (defined below), did not or will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The Incorporated Documents did not, and any further Incorporated Documents filed after the date of this Agreement will not, when filed with the Commission, contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated in such document or necessary to make the statements in such document, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The foregoing shall not apply to statements in, or omissions from, any such document made in reliance upon, and in conformity with, information furnished to the Company by an Agent specifically for use in the preparation thereof.

 

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(c)               Conformity with Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto, and the Incorporated Documents, when such documents were or are filed with the Commission under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or became or become effective under the Securities Act, as the case may be, conformed or will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable. At each Settlement Date, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as of such date, will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act.

 

(d)               Financial Information. The consolidated financial statements of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, together with the related notes and schedules, comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company and its Subsidiaries (as defined below) as of the dates indicated and the consolidated statements of operations, statements of changes in stockholders’ equity, and statements of cash flows of the Company for the periods specified (subject to normal year end audit adjustments for interim financial statements) and have been prepared in conformity with GAAP (as defined below) applied on a consistent basis during the periods involved (except as otherwise noted therein); the summary and selected financial data with respect to the Company and the Subsidiaries (as defined below) contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, fairly present in all material respects the information presented therein as at the respective dates and for the respective periods specified and are derived from the consolidated financial statements and the books and records of the Company. There are no financial statements (historical or pro forma) that are required to be included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, or the Prospectus that are not included or incorporated by reference as required. The Company and the Subsidiaries (as defined below) do not have any material liabilities or obligations, direct or contingent (including any off-balance sheet obligations), that are required to be described in the Registration Statement (excluding the exhibits thereto) and the Prospectus; and all disclosures contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) comply, in all material respects, with Regulation G of the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act, to the extent applicable.

 

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(e)               Conformity with EDGAR Filing. The Prospectus delivered to the Agents for use in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement will be identical to the versions of the Prospectus created to be transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.

 

(f)                Organization. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries (as defined below) has been duly organized and is validly existing as a corporation or other entity in good standing under the laws of their respective jurisdictions of organization, with corporate power and authority to own its properties and conduct its business as currently being conducted and as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, and is duly qualified as a foreign corporation or other entity for the transaction of business and is in good standing under the laws of each other jurisdiction in which it owns or leases properties or conducts any business so as to require such qualification, except where the failure to be so qualified in any such jurisdiction would not reasonably be expected to, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on the assets, business, operations, financial condition, stockholders’ equity or results of operations of the Company and the Subsidiaries (as defined below) taken as a whole (a “Material Adverse Effect”).

 

(g)               Subsidiaries. The subsidiaries set forth on Schedule 4 (collectively, the “Subsidiaries”) are the Company’s only significant subsidiaries (as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated by the Commission). Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and in the Prospectus, the Company does not own, directly or indirectly, any shares of stock or any other equity or long-term debt securities of any other corporation or have any equity interest in any other corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, trust or other entity. No Subsidiary is currently prohibited, directly or indirectly, from paying any dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution on such Subsidiary’s capital stock, from repaying to the Company any loans or advances to such Subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any of such Subsidiary’s property or assets to the Company or any other Subsidiary of the Company that would, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(h)               No Violation or Default. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents; (ii) in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries are subject; or (iii) in violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority having jurisdiction over the Company, except, in the case of each of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such violation or default that would not, individually or in the aggregate, be reasonably expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. To the Company’s knowledge, no other party under any material contract or other agreement to which it or any of its Subsidiaries is a party is in default in any respect thereunder where such default would have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(i)                 No Material Adverse Change. Since the date of the most recent financial statements of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (including any Incorporated Document), there has not been (i) any Material Adverse Effect, (ii) other than as contemplated by this Agreement, any transaction which is material to the Company and the Subsidiaries taken as a whole, (iii) any obligation or liability, direct or contingent (including any off-balance sheet obligations), incurred by the Company or any Subsidiary, which is material to the Company and the Subsidiaries taken as a whole and would be required to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (iv) any material change in the capital stock (other than as a result of the sale of Placement Shares) or outstanding long-term indebtedness of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or (v) any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made on the capital stock of the Company or any Subsidiary, other than in each case above in the ordinary course of business or as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus (including any Incorporated Document).

 

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(j)                 Capitalization. The issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and, other than as disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, are not subject to any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or similar rights pursuant to the Company’s charter, bylaws or any agreement or other instrument to which the Company is a party or by which the Company is bound. The Company has an authorized, issued and outstanding capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as of the dates referred to therein (other than (i) the grant of additional options or other equity awards under the Company’s existing stock option plans, (ii) changes in the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock of the Company due to the issuance of shares upon the exercise or conversion of securities exercisable for, or convertible into, Common Stock outstanding on the date hereof, or (iii) issuance of the Placement Shares) and such authorized capital stock conforms in all material respects to the description thereof set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. The description of the securities of the Company in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus is complete and accurate in all material respects. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as of the date referred to therein, the Company does not have outstanding any options to purchase, or any rights or warrants to subscribe for, or any securities or obligations convertible into, or exchangeable for, any contracts or commitments to issue or sell, any shares of capital stock or other securities.

 

(k)               Authorization; Enforceability. The Company has full corporate power and authority to enter into this Agreement and perform the transactions contemplated hereby. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and is a legal, valid and binding agreement of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, except as rights to indemnification or contribution hereunder may be limited by federal or state securities laws or public policy considerations and except as such enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general equitable principles.

 

(l)                 Authorization of Placement Shares. The Placement Shares, when issued and delivered pursuant to the terms approved by the board of directors of the Company or a duly authorized committee thereof, or a duly authorized executive committee, against payment therefor as provided herein, will be duly authorized and validly issued and fully paid and nonassessable and free and clear of any pledge, lien, encumbrance, security interest or other claim, including any statutory or contractual preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights, and will be registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act. The Placement Shares, when issued, will conform in all material respects to the description thereof set forth in or incorporated into the Prospectus.

 

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(m)             No Consents Required. No consent, approval, authorization, order, registration or qualification of or with any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority having jurisdiction over the Company is required for the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement or the issuance and sale by the Company of the Placement Shares, except for (i) the registration of the Placement Shares under the Securities Act; (ii) application(s) to the Exchange for the listing of the Placement Shares for trading thereon in the time and manner required thereby; and (iii) such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as may be required under applicable state and federal securities laws or by the by-laws and rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) or the Exchange in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares by the Agents or as have been previously obtained by the Company.

 

(n)               No Preferential Rights. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) no person, as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act (each, a “Person”), has the right, contractual or otherwise, to cause the Company to issue or sell to such Person any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company (other than upon the exercise of options or warrants to purchase Common Stock or upon the exercise of options or vesting of restricted stock units or other awards that may be granted from time to time under the Company’s equity incentive plans), (ii) no Person has any preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal, or any other rights (whether pursuant to a “poison pill” provision or otherwise) to purchase any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, (iii) no Person has the right to act as an underwriter or as a financial advisor to the Company in connection with the offer and sale of the Placement Shares, and (iv) no Person has the right, contractual or otherwise, to require the Company to register under the Securities Act any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, or to include any such shares or other securities in the Registration Statement or the offering contemplated thereby, whether as a result of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated thereby or otherwise.

 

(o)               Independent Public Accounting Firm. BDO USA, LLP (the “Accountant”), whose report on the consolidated financial statements of the Company is filed with the Commission as part of the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Commission and incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, are and, during the periods covered by their report, were an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). To the Company’s knowledge, the Accountant is not in violation of the auditor independence requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) with respect to the Company.

 

(p)               Enforceability of Agreements. To the Company’s knowledge, all agreements between the Company and third parties expressly referenced in the Prospectus are, except as would not have a Material Adverse Effect, legal, valid and binding obligations of the Company enforceable in accordance with their respective terms, except to the extent that (i) enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general equitable principles and (ii) the indemnification provisions of certain agreements may be limited by federal or state securities laws or public policy considerations in respect thereof.

 

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(q)               No Litigation. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, there are no legal, governmental or regulatory actions, suits or proceedings pending, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any legal, governmental or regulatory audits or investigations, to which the Company or a Subsidiary is a party or to which any property of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is the subject that, individually or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect or materially and adversely affect the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement; to the Company’s knowledge, no such actions, suits or proceedings are threatened or contemplated by any governmental or regulatory authority or threatened by others; and (i) there are no current or pending legal, governmental or regulatory audits or investigations, actions, suits or proceedings that are required under the Securities Act to be described in the Prospectus that are not so described; and (ii) there are no contracts or other documents that are required under the Securities Act to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement that are not so filed.

 

(r)                Consents and Permits. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries have made all filings, applications and submissions required by, possesses and is operating in compliance with, all approvals, licenses, certificates, certifications, clearances, consents, grants, exemptions, marks, notifications, orders, permits and other authorizations issued by, the appropriate federal, state or foreign governmental or regulatory authorities (including, without limitation, the United States Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”), the United States Drug Enforcement Administration or any other foreign, federal, state, provincial, court or local government or regulatory authorities engaged in the regulation of clinical trials, pharmaceuticals, biologics or biohazardous substances or materials) necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or to conduct its businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (collectively, “Permits”), except for such Permits the failure of which to possess, obtain or make the same would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; the Company and its Subsidiaries are in compliance with the terms and conditions of all such Permits, except where the failure to be in compliance would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; all of the Permits are valid and in full force and effect, except where any invalidity, individually or in the aggregate, would not be reasonably expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has received any written notice of proceedings relating to the limitation, revocation, cancellation, suspension, modification or non-renewal of any such Permit which, individually or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would be reasonably expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, or has any reason to believe that any such license, certificate, permit or authorization will not be renewed in the ordinary course to the extent required. To the extent required by applicable laws and regulations of the FDA, the Company or the applicable Subsidiary has submitted to the FDA an Investigational New Drug Application or amendment or supplement thereto for each clinical trial it has conducted or sponsored or is conducting or sponsoring; to the Company’s knowledge, all such submissions were in material compliance with applicable laws and rules and regulations when submitted and no material deficiencies have been asserted by the FDA with respect to any such submissions. To the Company’s knowledge, the preclinical studies and clinical trials conducted or sponsored by the Company and described in the Prospectus were, and, if still pending, are being, conducted in all material respects in accordance with the experimental protocols, procedures and controls pursuant to, where applicable, accepted professional and scientific standards for products or product candidates comparable to those being developed by the Company; the descriptions of such studies and trials, and the results thereof, contained in the Prospectus are accurate and complete in all material respects; the Company is not aware of any studies or trials not described in the Prospectus, the results of which reasonably call into question the results of the studies and trials described in the Prospectus; and the Company has not received any written notice or correspondence from the FDA or any foreign, state or local governmental body exercising comparable authority requiring the termination, suspension, clinical hold or material modification of any studies or trials.

 

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(s)                Regulatory Filings. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has failed to file with the applicable regulatory authorities (including, without limitation, the FDA, or any foreign, federal, state, provincial or local governmental or regulatory authority performing functions similar to those performed by the FDA) any required filing, declaration, listing, registration, report or submission, except for such failures that, individually or in the aggregate, would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, all such filings, declarations, listings, registrations, reports or submissions were in compliance with applicable laws when filed and no deficiencies have been asserted by any applicable regulatory authority with respect to any such filings, declarations, listings, registrations, reports or submissions, except for any deficiencies that, individually or in the aggregate, would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has operated and currently is, in all material respects, in compliance with the United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, all applicable rules and regulations of the FDA and other federal, state, local and foreign governmental bodies exercising comparable authority. The Company has not received any FDA Form 483, notice of adverse finding, warning letter, or other correspondence or notice from the FDA or any other governmental authority alleging or asserting noncompliance with any applicable laws or any licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such applicable laws, except for such failure of which to possess, obtain or make the same would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Additionally, neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries, nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any of their respective employees, officers, directors, agents or contractors has been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any federal health care program or, to the knowledge of Company and its Subsidiaries, is subject to an inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar matter that could subject the Company, any of its Subsidiaries, or any of their respective employees, officers, directors, agents or contractors to exclusion, suspension or debarment.

 

(t)                 Intellectual Property. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries own, possess, license or have other rights to use all foreign and domestic patents, patent applications, trade and service marks, trade and service mark registrations, trade names, copyrights, licenses, inventions, trade secrets, technology, Internet domain names, know-how and other intellectual property (collectively, the “Intellectual Property”), necessary for the conduct of their respective businesses as now conducted except to the extent that the failure to own, possess, license or otherwise hold adequate rights to use such Intellectual Property would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (i) there are no rights of third parties to any such Intellectual Property owned by the Company and its Subsidiaries; (ii) to the Company’s knowledge, there is no infringement by third parties of any such Intellectual Property; (iii) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the Company’s and its Subsidiaries’ rights in or to any such Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which could form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; (iv) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the validity or scope of any such Intellectual Property; (v) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others that the Company and its Subsidiaries infringe or otherwise violate any patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others; (vi) to the Company’s knowledge, there is no third-party U.S. patent or published U.S. patent application which contains claims for which an Interference Proceeding (as defined in 35 U.S.C. § 135) has been commenced against any patent or patent application described in the Prospectus as being owned by or licensed to the Company; and (vii) the Company and its Subsidiaries have complied with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company or such Subsidiary, and all such agreements are in full force and effect, except, in the case of any of clauses (i)-(vii) above, for any such infringement by third parties or any such pending or threatened suit, action, proceeding or claim as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, and (y) in the case of clause (vii) above, for any non-compliance as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(u)               Shell Company. The Company is not a shell company (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) and has not been a shell company for at least 12 calendar months previously and if it has been a shell company at any time previously, has filed current Form 10 information (as defined in General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3) with the Commission at least 12 calendar months previously reflecting its status as an entity that is not a shell company.

 

(v)               No Material Defaults. Neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries is in default on any installment on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, which defaults, individually or in the aggregate, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has not filed a report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act since the filing of its last Annual Report on Form 10-K, indicating that it (i) has failed to pay any dividend or sinking fund installment on preferred stock or (ii) has defaulted on any installment on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, which defaults, individually or in the aggregate, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(w)             Certain Market Activities. Neither the Company, nor any of the Subsidiaries, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any of their respective directors, officers or controlling persons has taken, directly or indirectly, any unlawful action designed, or that has constituted or might reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act or otherwise, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares.

 

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(x)               Broker/Dealer Relationships. Neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries or any related entities (i) is required to register as a “broker” or “dealer” in accordance with the provisions of the Exchange Act or (ii) directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is a “person associated with a member” or “associated person of a member” (within the meaning set forth in the FINRA Manual).

 

(y)               No Reliance. The Company has not relied upon the Agents or legal counsel for the Agents for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

 

(z)               Taxes. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries have filed all federal, state, local and foreign income and franchise tax returns and other material tax returns which have been required to be filed by the Company or a Subsidiary, or have properly requested extensions thereof, and paid all taxes shown thereon through the date hereof, to the extent that such taxes have become due and are not being contested in good faith, except where the failure to so file or pay would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Except as otherwise disclosed in or contemplated by the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, no tax deficiency has been determined adversely to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries which has had, or would reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has no knowledge of any federal, state or other governmental tax deficiency, penalty or assessment which has been asserted or threatened against it which would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(aa)            Title to Real and Personal Property. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple to all real property owned by them and good and marketable title in all personal property owned by them that is material to the business of the Company and the Subsidiaries, in each case free and clear of all liens, except for (i) liens as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and the Subsidiaries and (ii) liens for the payment of federal, state or other taxes, for which appropriate reserves have been made in accordance with GAAP and, the payment of which is neither delinquent nor subject to penalties. Any real property and facilities held under lease by the Company and the Subsidiaries are held by them under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases with which the Company and the Subsidiaries are in compliance.

 

(bb)           Environmental Laws. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, to the Company’s knowledge the Company and its Subsidiaries (i) are in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, rules, regulations, and orders relating to the protection of human health and safety, the environment or hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (ii) have received and are in compliance with all permits, licenses or other approvals required of them under applicable Environmental Laws to conduct their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and (iii) have not received notice of any actual or potential liability for the investigation or remediation of any disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, except, in the case of any of clauses (i), (ii) or (iii) above, for any such failure to comply or failure to receive required permits, licenses, other approvals or liability as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The representations and warranties made in this Section 6(cc) are the only representations and warranties made by the Company under this Agreement with respect to Environmental Laws.

 

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(cc)            Disclosure Controls. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries maintain systems of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. The Company’s internal control over financial reporting is effective and the Company is not aware of any material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting (other than as set forth in the Prospectus). Since the date of the latest audited financial statements of the Company included in the Prospectus, there has been no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (other than as set forth in the Prospectus). The Company has established disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15 and 15d-15) for the Company and designed such disclosure controls and procedures to ensure that material information relating to the Company and each of its Subsidiaries is made known to the certifying officers by others within those entities, including during the period in which the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K or Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as the case may be, is being prepared. The Company’s certifying officers have evaluated the effectiveness of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures as of a date within 90 days prior to the filing date of the Form 10-K for the fiscal year most recently ended (such date, the “Evaluation Date”). The Company presented in its Form 10-K for the fiscal year most recently ended the conclusions of the certifying officers about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures based on their evaluations as of the Evaluation Date and the disclosure controls and procedures were effective. Since the Evaluation Date, there have been no significant changes in the Company’s internal controls (as such term is defined in Item 307(b) of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act) or, to the Company’s knowledge, in other factors that could significantly affect the Company’s internal controls.

 

(dd)           Sarbanes-Oxley. There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or, to the knowledge of the Company, any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply in all material respects with any applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Each of the principal executive officer and the principal financial officer of the Company (or each former principal executive officer of the Company and each former principal financial officer of the Company as applicable) has made all certifications required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act with respect to all reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by it or furnished by it to the Commission. For purposes of the preceding sentence, “principal executive officer” and “principal financial officer” shall have the meanings given to such terms in the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

 

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(ee)            Finder’s Fees. Neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries has incurred any liability for any finder’s fees, brokerage commissions or similar payments in connection with the transactions herein contemplated, except as may otherwise exist with respect to Agents pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(ff)              Labor Disputes. No labor disturbance by or dispute with employees of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened which would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(gg)           Investment Company Act. Neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries is or, after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares, will be an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company,” as such terms are defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”).

 

(hh)           Operations. The operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial record keeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the money laundering statutes of all jurisdictions to which the Company or its Subsidiaries are subject, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency having jurisdiction over the Company (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”), except as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its Subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

 

(ii)              Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements. There are no transactions, arrangements and other relationships between and/or among the Company, and/or, to the knowledge of the Company, any of its affiliates and any unconsolidated entity, including, but not limited to, any structured finance, special purpose or limited purpose entity (each, an “Off Balance Sheet Transaction”) that would reasonably be expected to affect materially the Company’s liquidity or the availability of or requirements for its capital resources, including those Off Balance Sheet Transactions described in the Commission’s Statement about Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations (Release Nos. 33-8056; 34-45321; FR-61), required to be described in the Prospectus which have not been described as required.

 

(jj)              Underwriter Agreements. Except as previously disclosed to the Agents, the Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at-the-market” or continuous equity transaction.

 

(kk)           ERISA. To the knowledge of the Company, each material employee benefit plan, within the meaning of Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), that is maintained, administered or contributed to by the Company or any of its affiliates for employees or former employees of the Company and any of its Subsidiaries has been maintained in material compliance with its terms and the requirements of any applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations, including, but not limited to, ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”); no prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, has occurred which would result in a material liability to the Company with respect to any such plan excluding transactions effected pursuant to a statutory or administrative exemption; and for each such plan that is subject to the funding rules of Section 412 of the Code or Section 302 of ERISA, no “accumulated funding deficiency” as defined in Section 412 of the Code has been incurred, whether or not waived, and the fair market value of the assets of each such plan (excluding for these purposes accrued but unpaid contributions) exceeds the present value of all benefits accrued under such plan determined using reasonable actuarial assumptions.

 

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(ll)              Forward Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) (a “Forward Looking Statement”) contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

 

(mm)      Margin Rules. Neither the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares nor the application of the proceeds thereof by the Company as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

 

(nn)           Insurance. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries carry, or are covered by, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as the Company and each of its Subsidiaries reasonably believe are adequate for the conduct of their properties and as is customary for companies engaged in similar businesses of comparable size in similar industries.

 

(oo)           No Improper Practices. (i) Neither the Company nor, to the Company’s knowledge, the Subsidiaries, nor to the Company’s knowledge, any of their respective executive officers has, in the past five years, made any unlawful contributions to any candidate for any political office (or failed fully to disclose any contribution in violation of law) or made any contribution or other payment to any official of, or candidate for, any federal, state, municipal, or foreign office or other person charged with similar public or quasi-public duty in violation of any law or of the character required to be disclosed in the Prospectus; (ii) no relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any Subsidiary or any affiliate of any of them, on the one hand, and the directors, officers and stockholders of the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any Subsidiary, on the other hand, that is required by the Securities Act to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus that is not so described; (iii) no relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any Subsidiary or any affiliate of them, on the one hand, and the directors, officers, or stockholders of the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any Subsidiary, on the other hand, that is required by the rules of FINRA to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus that is not so described; (iv) except as described in the Prospectus, there are no material outstanding loans or advances or material guarantees of indebtedness by the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any Subsidiary to or for the benefit of any of their respective officers or directors or any of the members of the families of any of them; (v) the Company has not offered, or caused any placement agent to offer, Common Stock to any person with the intent to influence unlawfully (A) a customer or supplier of the Company or any Subsidiary to alter the customer’s or supplier’s level or type of business with the Company or any Subsidiary or (B) a trade journalist or publication to write or publish favorable information about the Company or any Subsidiary or any of their respective products or services, and (vi) neither the Company nor any Subsidiary nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any employee or agent of the Company or any Subsidiary has made any payment of funds of the Company or any Subsidiary or received or retained any funds in violation of any law, rule or regulation (including, without limitation, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977), which payment, receipt or retention of funds is of a character required to be disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.

 

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(pp)           Status Under the Securities Act. The Company was not and is not an ineligible issuer as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act at the times specified in Rules 164 and 433 under the Securities Act in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares.

 

(qq)           No Misstatement or Omission in an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus. Each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as of its issue date and as of each Applicable Time (as defined in Section 24 below), did not, does not and will not include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any Incorporated Document that has not been superseded or modified. The foregoing sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agents specifically for use therein.

 

(rr)              No Conflicts. Neither the execution of this Agreement, nor the issuance, offering or sale of the Placement Shares, nor the consummation of any of the transactions contemplated herein, nor the compliance by the Company with the terms and provisions hereof will conflict with, or will result in a breach of, any of the terms and provisions of, or has constituted or will constitute a default under, or has resulted in or will result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company pursuant to the terms of any contract or other agreement to which the Company is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company is subject, except (i) such conflicts, breaches or defaults as may have been waived and (ii) such conflicts, breaches and defaults that would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; nor will such action result (x) in any violation of the provisions of the organizational or governing documents of the Company, or (y) to the Company’s knowledge, in any material violation of the provisions of any statute or any order, rule or regulation applicable to the Company or of any court or of any federal, state or other regulatory authority or other government body having jurisdiction over the Company, other than, with respect to clause (y) only, any violation that would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(ss)             Sanctions. The Company represents that neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries (collectively, the “Entity”) or any director, officer, employee, agent, affiliate or representative of the Entity, is a government, individual, or entity (in this paragraph (uu), “Person”) that is, or is owned or controlled by a Person that is:

 

(A)             the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury, or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor

 

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(B)              located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of Sanctions (including, without limitation, Burma/Myanmar, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan and Syria).

 

(ii)              The Entity represents and covenants that it will not, directly or indirectly, use the proceeds of the offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other Person:

 

(A)             to fund or facilitate any activities or business of or with any Person or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions; or

 

(B)              in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any Person (including any Person participating in the offering, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise).

 

(iii)            The Entity represents and covenants that, except as detailed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, for the past 5 years, it has not knowingly engaged in, is not now knowingly engaged in, and will not engage in, any dealings or transactions with any Person, or in any country or territory, that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions.

 

(tt)              Stock Transfer Taxes. On each Settlement Date, all stock transfer or similar transfer taxes (other than income taxes) which are required to be paid in connection with the sale and transfer of the Placement Shares to be sold hereunder will be, or will have been, fully paid or provided for by the Company and all laws imposing such taxes will be or will have been fully complied with, except in each case for any taxes or compliance that would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(uu)           At the time the Registration Statement was or will be declared effective, and at the time the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K was filed with the Commission, the Company met or will meet the then applicable requirements for the use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, including, but not limited to, General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, if applicable.  The aggregate market value of the outstanding voting and non-voting common equity (as defined in Securities Act Rule 405) of the Company held by persons other than affiliates of the Company (pursuant to Securities Act Rule 144, those that directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, control, or are controlled by, or are under common control with, the Company) (the “Non-Affiliate Shares”), was in excess of $75 million (calculated by multiplying (x) the highest price at which the common equity of the Company closed on the Exchange within 60 days of the date of this Agreement times (y) the number of Non-Affiliate Shares).”

 

(vv)           IT Systems. (i)(x) To the knowledge of Company, there has been no security breach or other compromise of any Company’s information technology and computer systems, networks, hardware, software, data (including the data of their respective customers, employees, suppliers, vendors and any third party data maintained by or on behalf of them), equipment or technology (collectively, “IT Systems and Data”) and (y) the Company has not been notified of, and have no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in, any security breach or other compromise to their IT Systems and Data; (ii) the Company is presently in material compliance with all applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification, except as would not, in the case of this clause (ii), individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; and (iii) the Company has implemented backup and disaster recovery technology consistent with industry standards and practices.

 

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Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to the Agents or to counsel for the Agents pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company, as applicable, to the Agents as to the matters set forth therein.

 

7.                  Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Agents that:

 

(a)               Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Agents under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), (i) the Company will notify the Agents promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information, (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon the Agents’ request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in the Agents’ reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agents (provided, however, that the failure of the Agents to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agents shall have with respect to the failure to make such filing shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus disclosing a material change in the terms of the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to the Agents within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Agents have not reasonably objected in writing thereto within two (2) Business Days (provided, however, that the failure of the Agents to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agents’ right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and the Company has no obligation to provide the Agents any advance copy of such filing or to provide the Agents any opportunity to object to such filing if such filing does not name the Agents and does not relate to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, and provided, further, that the only remedy Agent shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to seek such consent shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to the Agents at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act or, in the case of any document to be incorporated therein by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the Exchange Act, within the time period prescribed (the determination to file or not file any amendment or supplement with the Commission under this Section 7(a), based on the Company’s reasonable opinion or reasonable objections, shall be made exclusively by the Company).

 

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(b)               Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise the Agents, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued. The Company will advise the Agents promptly after it receives any request by the Commission for any amendments to the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplements to the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or for additional information related to the offering of the Placement Shares or for additional information related to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus.

 

(c)               Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agents under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares, (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will use reasonable best efforts to comply in all material respects with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If the Company has omitted any information from the Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, it will use its commercially reasonable efforts to comply with the provisions of and make all requisite filings with the Commission pursuant to said Rule 430B and to notify the Agents promptly of all such filings if not available on EDGAR. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Designated Agent to suspend the offering of the Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that the Company may delay any such amendment or supplement if, in the reasonable judgment of the Company, it is in the best interests of the Company to do so.

 

(d)               Listing of Placement Shares. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agents under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares, the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on the Exchange.

 

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(e)               Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to the Agents and their counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all Incorporated Documents) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all Incorporated Documents filed with the Commission during such period), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as the Agents may from time to time reasonably request and, at the Agents’ request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to the Agents to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

 

(f)                Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act.

 

(g)               Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

 

(h)               Notice of Other Sales. Without the prior written consent of Agents, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Stock during the period beginning on the date on which any Placement Notice is delivered to the Agents hereunder and ending on the third (3rd) Trading Day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice (or, if the Placement Notice has been terminated or suspended prior to the sale of all Placement Shares covered by a Placement Notice, the date of such suspension or termination); provided, however, that such restrictions will not apply in connection with the Company’s issuance or sale of (i) Common Stock, options to purchase Common Stock or restricted stock units or other equity awards or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options, pursuant to any employee, consultant or director stock option or benefits plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan (but not Common Stock subject to a waiver to exceed plan limits in its dividend reinvestment plan) of the Company whether now in effect or hereafter implemented, (ii) Common Stock issuable upon conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding, and disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to the Agents, (iii) Common Stock or securities convertible into, exercisable or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock, offered and sold in a privately negotiated transaction to vendors, customers, strategic partners or potential strategic partners or other investors conducted in a manner so as not to be integrated with the offering of Common Stock hereby, and (iv) Common Stock issued in connection with any acquisition, strategic investment or other similar transaction (including any joint venture, strategic alliance or partnership) and or as consideration for mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations or strategic alliances occurring after the date of this Agreement which are not issued for capital raising purposes.

 

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(i)                 Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during the pendency of a Placement Notice, advise the Agents promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would adversely affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document required to be provided to the Agents pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(j)                 Due Diligence Cooperation. During the term of this Agreement, the Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agents or their its representatives in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agents may reasonably request.

 

(k)               Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require the filing of a prospectus supplement with respect to the sale of Placement Shares hereunder, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing date under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agents, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agents with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market.

 

(l)                 Representation Dates; Certificate. (1) On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) following the delivery of the first Placement Notice each time during the term of this Agreement that the Company:

 

(i)                 files the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or amends or supplements (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to an offering of securities other than the Placement Shares) the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of documents by reference into the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares;

 

(ii)              files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act (including any Form 10-K/A containing amended audited financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed Form 10-K);

 

(iii)            files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or

 

(iv)             files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than information “furnished” pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or to provide disclosure pursuant to Item 8.01 of Form 8-K relating to the reclassification of certain properties as discontinued operations in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date”);

 

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the Company shall furnish the Agents (but in the case of clause (iv) above only if any Agent reasonably determines that the information contained in such Form 8-K is material) with a certificate dated the Representation Date, in the form and substance satisfactory to the Agents and their counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agents and their counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(l) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time in which no Placement Notice is pending (including as a result of a Suspension being in effect), which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers instructions for the sale of Placement Shares hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date when such waiver applied and did not provide the Agents with a certificate under this Section 7(l), then before the Company delivers the instructions for the sale of Placement Shares or the Agents sell any Placement Shares pursuant to such instructions, the Company shall provide the Agents with a certificate in conformity with this Section 7(l) dated as of the date that the instructions for the sale of Placement Shares are issued.

 

(m)             Legal Opinions. (1) On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agents a written opinion in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Agents and its counsel of: (i) Gracin & Marlow LLP (“Company Counsel”), (ii) special Nevada counsel to the Company, (iii) special patent counsel to the Company, and (iv) special regulatory counsel to the Company, and (2) unless a Suspension is in effect, within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agents a written opinion of Company Counsel, in a form and substance substantially similar to the opinion delivered on or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, the Company shall be required to furnish to Agent no more than one opinion from Company Counsel hereunder per calendar quarter and the Company shall not be required to furnish any such letter if the Company does not intend to deliver a Placement Notice in such calendar quarter until such time as the Company delivers its next Placement Notice; provided, further, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent periodic filings under the Exchange Act, counsel may furnish the Agents with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that the Agents may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(m) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of the date of the Reliance Letter).

 

(n)               Comfort Letter. (1) On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) unless a Suspension is in effect, within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l), other than pursuant to Section 7(l)(iii), for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause its independent registered public accounting firm to furnish the Agents letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, which shall meet the requirements set forth in this Section 7(n); provided, that if requested by the Agents, the Company shall cause a Comfort Letter to be furnished to the Agents within ten (10) Trading Days of the date of occurrence of any material transaction or event, including the restatement of the Company’s financial statements. The Comfort Letter from the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm shall be in a form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agents, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

 

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(o)               Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or would reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of Common Stock or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase the Placement Shares in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than the Agents.

 

(p)               Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor any of its Subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, required to register as an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act.

 

(q)               No Offer to Sell. Other than an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus approved in advance by the Company and the Agents in their capacity as agents hereunder, neither of the Agents nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than the Agents in their capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.

 

(r)                Blue Sky and Other Qualifications. If required by applicable law, the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts, in cooperation with the Agents, to qualify the Placement Shares for offering and sale, or to obtain an exemption for the Placement Shares to be offered and sold, under the applicable securities laws of such states and other jurisdictions (domestic or foreign) as the Agents may reasonably designate and to maintain such qualifications and exemptions in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement); provided, however, that the Company shall not be obligated to file any general consent to service of process or to qualify as a foreign corporation or as a dealer in securities in any jurisdiction in which it is not so qualified to subject itself to taxation in respect of doing business in any jurisdiction in which it is not otherwise so subject. In each jurisdiction in which the Placement Shares have been so qualified or exempt, the Company will file such statements and reports as may be required by the laws of such jurisdiction to continue such qualification or exemption, as the case may be, in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement) so long as the Company has approved in advance the sale of Placement Shares in such jurisdiction.

 

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(s)                Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company and the Subsidiaries will maintain and keep accurate books and records reflecting their assets and maintain internal accounting controls in a manner designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP and including those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company, (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP, (iii) that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with management’s and the Company’s directors’ authorization, and (iv) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on its financial statements. The Company and the Subsidiaries will maintain such controls and other procedures, including, without limitation, those required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the applicable regulations thereunder that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure and to ensure that material information relating to the Company or the Subsidiaries is made known to them by others within those entities, particularly during the period in which such periodic reports are being prepared.

 

(t)                 Secretary’s Certificate; Further Documentation. On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice, the Company shall deliver to the Agents a certificate of the Secretary of the Company and attested to by an executive officer of the Company, dated as of such date, certifying as to (i) the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Company, (ii) the Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company, (iii) the resolutions of the Board of Directors of the Company, or a duly authorized committee of the Board of Directors, authorizing the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and the issuance of the Placement Shares and (iv) the incumbency of the officers duly authorized to execute this Agreement and the other documents contemplated by this Agreement. Unless a Suspension is in effect, within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date, the Company shall have furnished to the Agents such further information, certificates and documents as the Agents may reasonably request.

 

8.                  Payment of Expenses. The Company will pay all expenses incident to the performance of its obligations under this Agreement, including (i) the preparation and filing of the Registration Statement, including any fees required by the Commission, and the printing or electronic delivery of the Prospectus as originally filed and of each amendment and supplement thereto, in such number as the Agents shall deem reasonably necessary, (ii) the printing and delivery to the Agents of this Agreement and such other documents as may be reasonably required in connection with the offering, purchase, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the certificates, if any, for the Placement Shares to the Agents, including any stock or other transfer taxes and any capital duties, stamp duties or other duties or taxes payable upon the sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares to the Agents, (iv) the fees and disbursements of the counsel, accountants and other advisors to the Company, (v) the reasonable and documented out-of-pocket fees and disbursements of the counsel to the Agents, payable upon the execution of this Agreement, in an amount not to exceed $30,000, (vi) the qualification or exemption of the Placement Shares under state securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(r) hereof, including filing fees, but excluding fees of the Agents’ counsel, (vii) the printing and delivery to the Agents of copies of any Permitted Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto in such number as the Agents shall reasonably deem necessary, (viii) the preparation, printing and delivery to the Agents of copies of the blue sky survey, if applicable, (ix) the fees and expenses of the transfer agent and registrar for the Common Stock, (x) the filing and other fees incident to any review by FINRA of the terms of the sale of the Placement Shares including the fees of the Agents’ counsel (subject to the cap, set forth in clause (v) above), and (xi) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange.

 

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9.                  Representations and Covenants of Agent. Each of the agents represents and warrants, severally and not jointly, that it is duly registered as a broker-dealer under FINRA, the Exchange Act and the applicable statutes and regulations of each state in which the Placement Shares will be offered and sold, except such states in which such Agent is exempt from registration or such registration is not otherwise required. Each of the Agents shall continue, for the term of this Agreement, to be duly registered as a broker-dealer under FINRA, the Exchange Act and the applicable statutes and regulations of each state in which the Placement Shares will be offered and sold, except such states in which such Agent is exempt from registration or such registration is not otherwise required, during the term of this Agreement. Each of the Agents will comply with all applicable law and regulations in connection with the Placement Shares, including, but not limited to, Regulation M.

 

10.              Conditions to Agents’ Obligations. The obligations of the Agents hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein (other than those representations and warranties made as of a specified date or time), to the due performance in all material respects by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by each Agent of a due diligence review satisfactory to it in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing reasonable satisfaction (or waiver by the Agents in their sole discretion) of the following additional conditions as of each Representation Date.

 

(a)               Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall have become effective and shall be available for the (i) resale of all Placement Shares issued to the Agents and not yet sold by the Agents and (ii) sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued by any Placement Notice.

 

(b)               No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (other than immaterial amendments or supplements to documents incorporated by reference therein) if such post effective amendments or supplements have not been made and become effective; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or receipt by the Company of notification of the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or receipt by the Company of notification of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material Incorporated Document by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or material Incorporated Document so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and so that, in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

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(c)               No Misstatement or Material Omission. The Agents shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agents’ reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agents’ reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

 

(d)               Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Effect or any development that would reasonably be expected to cause a Material Adverse Effect, or a downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of the Agents (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

 

(e)               Legal Opinions. The Agents shall have received the opinions of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

 

(f)                Comfort Letter. The Agents shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

 

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(g)               Representation Certificate. The Agents shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(l) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(l).

 

(h)               No Suspension. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on the Exchange and the Common Stock shall not have been delisted from the Exchange.

 

(i)                 Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l), the Company shall have furnished the Agents such appropriate further information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agents may reasonably request. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents will be in compliance with the provisions hereof.

 

(j)                 Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission with respect to the Placement Shares required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

 

(k)               Approval for Listing. The Placement Shares shall either have been approved for listing on the Exchange, subject only to notice of issuance, or the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.

 

(l)                 FINRA. FINRA shall have raised no objection to the terms of this offering and the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Agents as described in the Prospectus.

 

(m)             No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit the Agents to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 13(a).

 

11.              Indemnification and Contribution.

 

(a)               Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agents, their partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents and each person, if any, who controls the Agents within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act as follows:

 

(i)                 against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, or arising out of any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact included in any related Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading;

 

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(ii)              against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, to the extent of the aggregate amount paid in settlement of any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any governmental agency or body, commenced or threatened, or of any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission; provided that (subject to Section 11(d) below) any such settlement is effected with the written consent of the Company, which consent shall not unreasonably be delayed or withheld; and

 

(iii)            against any and all expense whatsoever, as incurred (including the reasonable and documented out-of-pocket fees and disbursements of counsel), reasonably incurred in investigating, preparing or defending against any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any governmental agency or body, commenced or threatened, or any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission, to the extent that any such expense is not paid under (i) or (ii) above,

 

provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to any loss, liability, claim, damage or expense to the extent arising out of any untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission made solely in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by any Agent expressly for use in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto), or in any related Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto).

 

(b)               Agents Indemnification. Each Agent agrees, severally and not jointly, to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer and director of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 11(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus in reliance upon and in conformity with information furnished to the Company in writing by such Agent expressly for use therein. The Company hereby acknowledges that the only information that the Agents have furnished to the Company expressly for use in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) are the statements set forth in the seventh and ninth paragraphs under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus.

 

(c)               Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 11 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 11, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 11 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 11 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture or material impairment of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any legal or other expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict of interest exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable and documented out-of-pocket fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable and documented out-of-pocket fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such reasonable and documented out-of-pocket fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly and after the indemnifying party receives a written notice relating to the fees, disbursements and other charges in reasonable detail. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent if such consent is required by this Section 11(c). No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 11 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent (1) includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising out of such litigation, investigation, proceeding or claim and (2) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any indemnified party.

 

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(d)               Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 11 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable from the Company or an Agent, the Company and such Agent will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than the Agents, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and each Agent may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and each Agent on the other hand. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and each Agent on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by such Agent (before deducting expenses) from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and such Agent, on the other hand, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or such Agent, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and each Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 11(e) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 11(e) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 11(e), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 11(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 11(e), an Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 11(e), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of an Agent, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer and director of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 11(e), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 11(e) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 11(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 11(c) hereof. Any obligation of the Agents under this Section 11(d) shall be several and not joint.

 

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12.              Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 11 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agents, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

 

13.              Termination.

 

(a)               An Agent may terminate this Agreement with respect to itself, by notice to the Company, as hereinafter specified at any time (1) if there has been, since the time of execution of this Agreement or since the date as of which information is given in the Prospectus, any change, or any development or event involving a prospective change, in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the business, properties, earnings, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries considered as one enterprise, whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business, which individually or in the aggregate, in the sole judgment of such Agent is material and adverse and makes it impractical or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (2) if there has occurred any material adverse change in the financial markets in the United States or the international financial markets, any outbreak of hostilities or escalation thereof or other calamity or crisis or any change or development involving a prospective change in national or international political, financial or economic conditions, in each case the effect of which is such as to make it, in the judgment of such Agent, impracticable or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (3) if trading in the Common Stock has been suspended or limited by the Commission or the Exchange, or if trading generally on the Exchange has been suspended or limited, or minimum prices for trading have been fixed on the Exchange, (4) if any suspension of trading of any securities of the Company on any exchange or in the over-the-counter market shall have occurred and be continuing, (5) if a major disruption of securities settlements or clearance services in the United States shall have occurred and be continuing, or (6) if a banking moratorium has been declared by either U.S. Federal or New York authorities. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8 (Payment of Expenses), Section 11 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 12 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 18 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 19 (Consent to Jurisdiction) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If an Agent elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 13(a), such Agent shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 14 (Notices).

 

(b)               The Company shall have the right, by giving five (5) days’ written notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement with respect to one Agent or the entire Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8, Section 11, Section 12, Section 18 and Section 19 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

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(c)               Each Agent shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion with respect to itself at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8, Section 11, Section 12, Section 18 and Section 19 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(d)               This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 13(a), (b), or (c) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 8, Section 11, Section 12, Section 18 and Section 19 shall remain in full force and effect. Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not have any liability to an Agent for any discount, commission or other compensation with respect to any Placement Shares not otherwise sold by an Agent under this Agreement. To the extent this Agreement is terminated by one Agent or by the Company with respect to one Agent pursuant to Sections 13(a), (b) or (c) above, this Agreement shall terminate only with respect to such Agent and shall remain in full force and effect with respect to the Company and the other Agents, unless and until terminated pursuant to Sections 13(a), (b), (c), or (d) above.

 

(e)               Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by an Agent or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

 

14.              Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified, and if sent to the Agents, shall be delivered to:

 

B. Riley Securities, Inc.

299 Park Avenue, 21st Floor

New York NY 10171

Attention: General Counsel

Telephone: (212) 457-9947

Email: atmdesk@brileyfin.com

 

A.G.P./Alliance Global Partners

590 Madison Ave.

New York, NY 10022

Attention: Thomas J. Higgins

Email: atm@allianceg.com

 

and with a copy to:

 

Duane Morris LLP

One Riverfront Plaza

1037 Raymond Boulevard, Suite 1800

Newark, NJ 07102

Attention: Dean M. Colucci

Facsimile: (973) 556-1406

 

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and if to the Company, shall be delivered to:

 

Synthetic Biologics, Inc.

9605 Medical Center Drive

Suite 270

Rockville, MD 20850
Attention: Steven A. Shallcross
Facsimile: (301) 417-4364

 

with a copy (which shall not constitute notice) to:

 

Gracin & Marlow, LLP

The Chrysler Building

405 Lexington Avenue

26th Floor

New York, NY 10174

Attention: Leslie Marlow Esq.

Facsimile: (212) 907-6457

 

Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally, by email, or by verifiable facsimile transmission on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day or, if such day is not a Business Day, on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Exchange and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

 

An electronic communication (“Electronic Notice”) shall be deemed written notice for purposes of this Section 14 if sent to the electronic mail address specified by the receiving party under separate cover. Electronic Notice shall be deemed received at the time the party sending Electronic Notice receives verification of receipt by the receiving party. Any party receiving Electronic Notice may request and shall be entitled to receive the notice on paper, in a nonelectronic form (“Nonelectronic Notice”) which shall be sent to the requesting party within ten (10) days of receipt of the written request for Nonelectronic Notice.

 

15.              Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and each Agent and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 11 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither the Company nor the Agents may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party.

 

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16.              Adjustments for Stock Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any stock split, stock dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Placement Shares.

 

17.              Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and the Agents. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement.

 

18.              GOVERNING LAW AND TIME; WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAWS. SPECIFIED TIMES OF DAY REFER TO NEW YORK CITY TIME. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

 

19.              CONSENT TO JURISDICTION. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY SUBMITS TO THE NON-EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION OF THE STATE AND FEDERAL COURTS SITTING IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN, FOR THE ADJUDICATION OF ANY DISPUTE HEREUNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY TRANSACTION CONTEMPLATED HEREBY, AND HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, AND AGREES NOT TO ASSERT IN ANY SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING, ANY CLAIM THAT IT IS NOT PERSONALLY SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION OF ANY SUCH COURT, THAT SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS BROUGHT IN AN INCONVENIENT FORUM OR THAT THE VENUE OF SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS IMPROPER. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES PERSONAL SERVICE OF PROCESS AND CONSENTS TO PROCESS BEING SERVED IN ANY SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING BY MAILING A COPY THEREOF (CERTIFIED OR REGISTERED MAIL, RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED) TO SUCH PARTY AT THE ADDRESS IN EFFECT FOR NOTICES TO IT UNDER THIS AGREEMENT AND AGREES THAT SUCH SERVICE SHALL CONSTITUTE GOOD AND SUFFICIENT SERVICE OF PROCESS AND NOTICE THEREOF. NOTHING CONTAINED HEREIN SHALL BE DEEMED TO LIMIT IN ANY WAY ANY RIGHT TO SERVE PROCESS IN ANY MANNER PERMITTED BY LAW.

 

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20.              Use of Information. The Agents may not use any information gained in connection with this Agreement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including due diligence, to any third party other than its legal counsel advising it on this Agreement unless expressly approved by the Company in writing.

 

21.              Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or electronic transmission.

 

22.              Effect of Headings. The section and exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

 

23.              Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior consent of the Agents, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed, and each Agent represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior consent of the Company, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Placement Shares that would constitute an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 405, required to be filed with the Commission. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Agents or by the Company, as the case may be, is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents and warrants that it has treated and agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, and has complied and will comply with the requirements of Rule 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping. For the purposes of clarity, the parties hereto agree that all free writing prospectuses, if any, listed in Exhibit 23 hereto are Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses.

 

24.              Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

 

(a)               each Agent is acting solely as agent in connection with the public offering of the Placement Shares and in connection with each transaction contemplated by this Agreement and the process leading to such transactions, and no fiduciary or advisory relationship between the Company or any of its respective affiliates, stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees or any other party, on the one hand, and the Agents, on the other hand, has been or will be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether or not any Agent has advised or is advising the Company on other matters, and the Agents have no obligation to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement except the obligations expressly set forth in this Agreement;

 

(b)               it is capable of evaluating and understanding, and understands and accepts, the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

 

(c)               neither the Agents nor their affiliates have provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and it has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it has deemed appropriate;

 

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(d)               it is aware that the Agents and their affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and the Agents and their affiliates have no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship or otherwise; and

 

(e)               it waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against the Agents or their affiliates for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the sale of Placement Shares under this Agreement and agrees that the Agents and their affiliates shall not have any liability (whether direct or indirect, in contract, tort or otherwise) to it in respect of such a fiduciary duty claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on its behalf or in right of it or the Company, employees or creditors of Company, other than in respect of the Agents’ obligations under this Agreement and to keep information provided by the Company to the Agents and the Agents’ counsel confidential to the extent not otherwise publicly-available.

 

25.              Definitions. As used in this Agreement, the following terms have the respective meanings set forth below:

 

Applicable Time” means (i) each Representation Date and (ii) the time of each sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement.

 

Issuer Free Writing Prospectus” means any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, relating to the Placement Shares that (1) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company, (2) is a “road show” that is a “written communication” within the meaning of Rule 433(d)(8)(i) whether or not required to be filed with the Commission, or (3) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i) because it contains a description of the Placement Shares or of the offering that does not reflect the final terms, in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g) under the Securities Act.

 

Rule 164,” “Rule 172,” “Rule 405,” “Rule 415,” “Rule 424,” “Rule 424(b),” “Rule 430B,” and “Rule 433” refer to such rules under the Securities Act.

 

All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information that is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be.

 

All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include the copy filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; all references in this Agreement to any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (other than any Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses that, pursuant to Rule 433, are not required to be filed with the Commission) shall be deemed to include the copy thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; and all references in this Agreement to “supplements” to the Prospectus shall include, without limitation, any supplements, “wrappers” or similar materials prepared in connection with any offering, sale or private placement of any Placement Shares by the Agents outside of the United States.

 

[Signature Page Follows]

 

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If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and each of the Agents, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and each of the Agents.

 

  Very truly yours,
     
  SYNTHETIC BIOLOGICS, INC.
     
     
  By: /s/ Steven A. Shallcross             
  Name: Steven A. Shallcross
  Title: Chief Executive Officer and
    Chief Financial Officer
     
     
  ACCEPTED as of the date first-above written:
     
     
     
  A.G.P./ALLIANCE GLOBAL PARTNERS
     
     
  By: /s/ Thomas Higgins
  Name: Thomas Higgins
  Title: Managing Director, Investment Banking
     
     
  B. RILEY SECURITIES, INC.
     
     
  By: /s/ Patrice McNicoll                                
  Name: Patrice McNicoll
  Title: Co-Head of Investment Banking

 

Signature Page

Synthetic Biologics, Inc. – Amended and Restated At Market Issuance Sales Agreement

 

 

SCHEDULE 1

__________________________

 

Form of Placement Notice

__________________________

 

From: Synthetic Biologics, Inc.
   
To: [B. Riley Securities, Inc.][A.G.P./Alliance Global Partners]
Attention:  [•]
   
Subject: Placement Notice
   
Date: [•], 2021

 

Gentlemen:

 

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Amended and Restated At Market Issuance Sales Agreement between Synthetic Biologics, Inc., a Nevada corporation (the “Company”), and B. Riley Securities, Inc. (“B. Riley Securities”) and A.G.P./Alliance Global Partners (“A.G.P.”), dated February 9, 2021, the Company hereby requests that the [identify Designated Agent] sell up to [•] of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, at a minimum market price of $[•] per share, during the time period beginning [month, day, time] and ending [month, day, time].

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 2

__________________________

 

Compensation

__________________________

 

The Company shall pay to the Designated Agent in cash, upon each sale of Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, an amount equal to up to 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds from each sale of Placement Shares.

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 3

__________________________

 

Notice Parties

__________________________

 

The Company

 

Steven A. Shallcross sshallcross@syntheticbiologics.com

 

B. Riley Securities

 

Matt Feinberg mfeinberg@brileyfin.com
   
Patrice McNicoll pmcnicoll@brileyfin.com  
   
Keith Pompliano kpompliano@brileyfin.com  

 

With a copy to atmdesk@brileyfin.com

 

A.G.P./Alliance Global Partners

 

Thomas J. Higgins thiggins@allianceg.com

 

With a copy to atm@allianceg.com

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 4

__________________________

 

Subsidiaries

__________________________

 

Pipex Therapeutics, Inc.

 

Effective Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

 

Solovax, Inc.

 

CD4 Biosciences, Inc.

 

Epitope Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

 

Healthmine, Inc.

 

Putney Drug Corp.

 

Synthetic Biomics, Inc.

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 23

 

Permitted Free Writing Prospectus

 

None.