Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)

Registration Statement No. 333-224728

Prospectus Supplement

(To Prospectus dated May 15, 2018)

 

 

Up to $3,446,481 of Shares

 

Common Stock

 

We have entered into an At Market Issuance Sales Agreement, dated August 5, 2016, with B. Riley Securities, Inc. (formerly known as B. Riley FBR, Inc.) or B. Riley, as amended by amendment no. 1, dated May 7, 2018, to the At Market Issuance Sales Agreement (as so amended, the “sales agreement”) relating to the sale of shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, under this prospectus supplement and accompanying base prospectus we may offer and sell shares of our common stock, having an aggregate offering price of up to $3,446,481 from time to time through or directly to B. Riley, acting as sales agent or principal, including $2,373,252 of shares of common stock originally registered by the prospectus dated May 15, 2018, or the prospectus, and an additional $1,073,229 of shares of common stock initially registered hereby. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we have sold an aggregate of 3,545,831 shares of our common stock (on a post 2018 split basis) having an aggregate offering price of $12,496,747 under the sales agreement with B. Riley.

  

On November 16, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE American LLC was $0.34 per share.

 

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement will be made by any method permitted that is deemed an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). B. Riley is not required to sell any specific amount, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

B. Riley will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate equal to up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, B. Riley will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of B. Riley will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to B. Riley with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

As of the date of this prospectus supplement, the aggregate market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 is $10,361,479, which is calculated based on 19,948,941 shares of our common stock outstanding held by non-affiliates and a price of $0.5194 per share, the closing price of our common stock on September 18, 2020, which is the highest closing sale price of our common stock on the NYSE American LLC within the prior 60 days of this prospectus supplement. During the prior 12 calendar month period that ends on and includes the date hereof, we have offered and sold 20,658 shares of our common stock pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 to Form S-3 stock having an aggregate offering price of approximately $7,342 under the sales agreement with B. Riley.

 

As a result of the limitations set forth in General Instruction I.B.6 to Form S-3 and the current public float of our common stock, and in accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell additional shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $3,446,481 (which is one-third of $10,361,479 minus sales during the prior 12 month period) from time to time through B. Riley. If our public float increases such that we may sell additional amounts under the sales agreement and the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, we will file a prospectus supplement prior to making additional sales. In no event will we sell securities in public primary offerings on Form S-3 with a value exceeding more than one-third of our public float (as defined by General Instruction I.B.6) in any 12 calendar month period so long as our public float remains below $75 million.

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, please read the information under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-3 of this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, and the accompanying base prospectus.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying base prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

B. RILEY SECURITIES

 

The date of this prospectus supplement is November 17, 2020.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

                    Page 
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT   S-i
INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA   S-ii
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY   S-1
THE OFFERING   S-2
RISK FACTORS   S-3
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS   S-5
USE OF PROCEEDS   S-6
DIVIDEND POLICY   S-7
DILUTION   S-8
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION   S-9
LEGAL MATTERS   S-10
EXPERTS   S-10
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION   S-10
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE   S-10

  

 

PROSPECTUS   Page
     
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS   i
INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA   ii
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY   1
RISK FACTORS   8
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS   8
RATIO OF EARNING TO FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED STOCK DIVIDENDS   9
USE OF PROCEEDS   9
DIVIDEND POLICY   9
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK   10
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES   15
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS   22
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS   24
LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES   25
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION   28
LEGAL MATTERS   30
EXPERTS   30
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION   30
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE   30
DISCLOSURE OF THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION POSITION ON INDEMNIFICATION FOR SECURITIES ACT LIABILITIES   31

  

 

 

  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus are part of a “shelf” registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-224728) that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the “SEC,” on May 7, 2018, and was declared effective on May 15, 2018.

 

This prospectus supplement describes the specific terms of this offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus. The accompanying base prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference, provides more general information. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement, on the one hand, and the information contained in the accompanying base prospectus or in any document incorporated by reference that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus supplement, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date — for example, a document incorporated by reference in the accompanying base prospectus — the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. You should read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision.

 

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus, along with the information contained in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering is accurate only as of the respective dates of those documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying base prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties and covenants were accurate only as of the date when made; therefore, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurate representations of the current state of our affairs.

 

Unless we have indicated otherwise, or the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus to “Synthetic,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Synthetic Biologics, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

 

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the information incorporated by reference includes trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying base prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

 

We are offering to sell, and are seeking offers to buy, the common stock only in jurisdictions where such offers and sales are permitted. No action has been or will be taken in any jurisdiction by us or the sales agent that would permit a public offering of the common stock or the possession or distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus in any jurisdiction, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common stock and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus do not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under the shelf registration process, we may offer shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $200,000,000 under the accompanying base prospectus. Under this prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus, we may offer shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $3,446,481 from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering.

  

 S-i 

 

 

We provide information to you about this offering of shares of our common stock in two separate documents that are bound together: (1) this sales agreement prospectus, which describes the specific details regarding this offering; and (2) the accompanying base prospectus, which provides general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. Generally, when we refer to this “prospectus,” we are referring to both documents combined. If information in this sales agreement prospectus is inconsistent with the accompanying base prospectus, you should rely on this prospectus supplement. However, if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement as our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since the earlier dates. This prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated into each by reference include important information about us, the securities being offered and other information you should know before investing in our securities. You should also read and consider information in the documents we have referred you to in the section of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

You should rely only on this prospectus, the accompanying base prospectus and the information incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference therein. We have not and B. Riley has not authorized anyone to provide you with information that is in addition to or different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not offering to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying base prospectus is accurate as of any date other than as of the date of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying base prospectus, as the case may be, or in the case of the documents incorporated by reference, the date of such documents regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus or any sale of our securities. Our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

  

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in the accompanying base prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

 

No action has been or will be taken in any jurisdiction by us or B. Riley that would permit a public offering of the common stock or the possession or distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus in any jurisdiction, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common stock and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus do not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

 

INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

 

We obtained the industry and market data in this prospectus supplement from our own research as well as from industry and general publications, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. These data involve a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. In addition, projections, assumptions and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the industry in which we operate is necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us.

  

 S-ii 

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

 

We are a diversified clinical-stage company developing therapeutics designed to treat gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in areas of high unmet need. Our lead clinical development candidates are: (1) SYN-004 (ribaxamase) which is designed to degrade certain commonly used intravenous (IV) beta-lactam antibiotics within the GI tract to prevent microbiome damage, Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), overgrowth of pathogenic organisms, the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD) in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, and (2) SYN-020, a recombinant oral formulation of the enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) produced under cGMP conditions and intended to treat both local GI and systemic diseases.

 

We were also developing SYN-010 to reduce the impact of methane-producing organisms in the gut microbiome to treat an underlying cause of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). On September 30, 2020, Cedars Sinai Medical Center’s (CSMC) (the Company’s SYN-010 clinical development partner) informed the Company that it agreed to discontinue the ongoing Phase 2b investigator-sponsored clinical study of SYN-010 in IBS-C patients. Based on the results of a planned interim futility analysis, it was concluded that although SYN-010 was well tolerated, it was unlikely to meet its primary endpoint by the time enrollment is completed. On November 9, 2020, we and CSMC mutually agreed to terminate the exclusive license agreement (the “Exclusive License Agreement”) that we and our subsidiary, Synthetic Biomics, Inc. entered into with CSMC date December 5, 2013 and all amendments thereto and the clinical trial agreement relating to SYN-010.

 

As a result of the decision to discontinue the ongoing Phase 2b investigator-sponsored clinical study of SYN-010, we plan to explore and evaluate a range of strategic options, which may include: in-licensing opportunities; evaluation of potential acquisitions; or other potential strategic transactions. In the meantime, we remain focused on working with our clinical development partners to advance the planned Phase 1b/2a clinical trial of SYN-004 (ribaxamase) in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients, and advancing the clinical development program for SYN-020 intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) in multiple potential indications. Both of these programs are unrelated to SYN-010, and therefore, we remain encouraged by the outlook and potential for these programs in addressing large, underserved markets.

  

We are in close contact with our clinical sites and are assessing the impact of COVID-19 on our studies and current timelines and costs. To maximize patient participation and safeguard the trials integrity and patient safety, initiation of the Company’s Phase 1b/2a clinical study of SYN-004 to be conducted by Washington University in Allogeneic HCT Recipients is deferred until Q1 2021, pandemic conditions permitting. If the COVID-19 pandemic continues and persists for an extended period of time, we could experience significant disruptions to our clinical development timeline, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

 

In response to the spread of COVID-19 as well as public health directives and orders, we have implemented a number of measures designed to ensure employee safety and business continuity. We have limited access to our offices and are allowing our administrative employees to continue their work outside of our offices in order to support the community efforts to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 and protect employees, complying with guidance from federal, state and local government and health authorities. The effects of the governmental orders and our work-from-home policies may negatively impact productivity, disrupt our business and delay our clinical programs and timelines, the magnitude of which will depend, in part, on the length and severity of the restrictions and other limitations on our ability to conduct our business in the ordinary course.

 

Company History

 

Our predecessor, Sheffield Pharmaceuticals, Inc., was incorporated in 1986, and in 2006 engaged in a reverse merger with Pipex Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation formed in 2001. After the merger, we changed our name to Pipex Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and in October 2008 we changed our name to Adeona Pharmaceuticals, Inc. On October 15, 2009, we engaged in a merger with a wholly owned subsidiary for the purpose of reincorporating in the State of Nevada. After reprioritizing our focus on the emerging area of synthetic biologics and entering into our first collaboration with Intrexon, we amended our Articles of Incorporation to change our name to Synthetic Biologics, Inc. on February 15, 2012.

 

Corporate Information

 

Our executive offices are located at 9605 Medical Center Drive, Suite 270, Rockville, Maryland 20850. Our telephone number is (301) 417-4364, and our website address is www.syntheticbiologics.com. The information contained on our website is not part of, and should not be construed as being incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

 

For further information regarding us and our financial information, you should refer to our recent filings with the SEC. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

  

 S-1 

 

 

THE OFFERING

  

Common stock offered by us pursuant to this prospectus supplement   Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $3,446,481.
     
Common stock to be outstanding after this offering   Up to 29,979,664 shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 10,136,709 shares  of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of $0.34 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our  common stock on the NYSE American on November 16, 2020. The actual number of shares issued will  vary depending on the sales price under this offering.
     
Manner of offering   “At the market offering” that may be made from time to time on the NYSE American or other market for our common stock in the United States through our agent, B. Riley. See the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” on page S-9 of this prospectus supplement.
     
Use of proceeds  

We intend to use the net proceeds, if any, from this offering for general corporate purposes, which may include, among other things, for clinical trials for our product candidates, paying general and administrative expenses and accounts payable, increasing our working capital, funding research and development and funding capital expenditures.

 

We may also use a portion of the net proceeds for licensing or acquiring intellectual property to incorporate into our products and product candidates or our research and development programs and to in-license, acquire or invest in complementary businesses or products, although we have no commitments or agreements with respect to any such licenses, acquisitions or investments as of the date of this prospectus supplement. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-6.

     
Risk factors   You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement for a discussion of factors to consider before deciding to purchase shares of our common stock.
     
NYSE American symbol   SYN

  

 S-2 

 

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. This prospectus supplement does not describe all of those risks. You should consider the risk factors described in this prospectus supplement under the caption “Risks Related to This Offering and Our Securities” below, as well as the those described under the caption “Risk Factors” in the documents incorporated by reference herein, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on February 20,2020 any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q/10-Q/A or Current Reports on Form 8-K, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus before deciding whether to purchase any of the common stock being offered under this prospectus supplement. Each of the risks described below could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our common stock, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Moreover, the risks described below are not the only ones that we face. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations. Please also read carefully the section below titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

Risks Relating to the Offering

 

Our management team may invest or spend the proceeds of this offering in ways with which you may not agree or in ways which may not yield a significant return.

 

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this offering. The net proceeds from this offering will be used primarily for general corporate purposes, which may include, among other things, for clinical trials for our product candidates, paying general and administrative expenses and accounts payable, increasing our working capital, funding research and development and funding capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds for licensing or acquiring intellectual property to incorporate into our products and product candidates or our research and development programs and to in-license, acquire or invest in complementary businesses or products, although we have no commitments or agreements with respect to any such licenses, acquisitions or investments as of the date of this prospectus supplement. Our management will have considerable discretion in the application of the net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. The net proceeds may be used for corporate purposes that do not increase our operating results or enhance the value of our common stock. The failure of our management to use these funds effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, cause the market price of our common stock to decline and impair the commercialization of our products and/or delay the development of our product candidates. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments and U.S. government securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders.

 

If you purchase shares of our common stock sold in this offering, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of your shares. In addition, we may issue additional equity or convertible debt securities in the future, which may result in additional dilution to investors.

 

The price per share of our common stock being offered may be higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 10,136,709 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $0.34 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE American on November 16, 2020, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $3,446,481 and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, new investors in this offering will incur immediate dilution of $0.10 per share. For a more detailed discussion of the foregoing, see the section entitled “Dilution” below. To the extent outstanding stock options or warrants are exercised, there will be further dilution to new investors.

 

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

 

In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

 

 S-3 

 

 

Because we do not intend to declare cash dividends on our shares of common stock in the foreseeable future, stockholders must rely on appreciation of the value of our common stock for any return on their investment.

 

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. In addition, the terms of any existing or future preferred stock or debt agreements may preclude us from paying dividends. As a result, we expect that only appreciation of the price of our common stock, if any, will provide a return to investors in this offering for the foreseeable future.

 

Resales of our common stock in the public market during this offering by our stockholders may cause the market price of our common stock to fall.

 

We may issue common stock from time to time in connection with this offering. This issuance from time to time of these new shares of our common stock, or our ability to issue these shares of common stock in this offering, could result in resales of our common stock by our current stockholders concerned about the potential dilution of their holdings. In turn, these resales could have the effect of depressing the market price for our common stock.

 

The shares of common stock offered under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus may be sold in “at the market” offerings, and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

 

Investors who purchase shares under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience declines in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

 

The actual number of shares we will issue under the sales agreement at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

 

Subject to certain limitations in the sales agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver placement notices to the sales agent at any time throughout the term of the sales agreement. The number of shares that are sold by the sales agent as our sales agent after we deliver a placement notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the common stock and the trading volume of our common stock during the sales period and limits we set with the sales agent.

 

 S-4 

 

  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus and the documents we file with the SEC that are incorporated by reference herein and therein contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), these statements reflect our current views with respect to our ongoing and planned clinical trials, business strategy, business plan, financial performance and other future events. These statements include forward-looking statements both with respect to us, specifically, and the biotechnology sector, in general. We make these statements pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Statements that include the words “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “project,” “estimate,” “may,” “should,” “anticipate,” “will” and similar statements of a future or forward-looking nature identify forward-looking statements for purposes of the federal securities laws or otherwise.

 

All forward-looking statements involve inherent risks and uncertainties, and there are or will be important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated in these statements. We believe that these factors include, but are not limited to, those factors set forth under the caption “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying base prospectus and under the captions “Risk Factors,” “Business,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q/10-Q/A, all of which you should review carefully. Please consider our forward-looking statements in light of those risks as you read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

 

You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus supplement, or that any information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date of the document so incorporated by reference. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements publicly, or to update the reasons actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements.

 

If one or more of these or other risks or uncertainties materializes, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may vary materially from what we anticipate. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or individuals acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by this Note. Before purchasing any shares of common stock, you should consider carefully all of the factors set forth or referred to in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying base prospectus that could cause actual results to differ.

  

 S-5 

 

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate gross proceeds of up to $3,446,481 from time to time under the sales agreement. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. The amount of proceeds from this offering will depend upon the number of shares of our common stock sold and the market price at which they are sold. There can be no assurance that we will be able to sell any shares under or fully utilize the sales agreement with the sales agent as a source of financing. We intend to use the net proceeds, if any, from this offering for general corporate purposes, which may include, among other things, for clinical trials for our product candidates, paying general and administrative expenses and accounts payable, increasing our working capital, funding research and development and funding capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds for licensing or acquiring intellectual property to incorporate into our products and product candidates or our research and development programs and to in-license, acquire or invest in complementary businesses or products, although we have no commitments or agreements with respect to any such licenses, acquisitions or investments as of the date of this prospectus supplement.

  

 S-6 

 

  

DIVIDEND POLICY

 

We have never paid cash dividends on our common stock. Moreover, we do not anticipate paying periodic cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. We intend to use all available cash and liquid assets in the operation and growth of our business, subject to terms of any preferred stock or debt securities. Any future determination about the payment of dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will be subject to the rights of any outstanding preferred stock and will depend upon our earnings, if any, capital requirements, operating and financial conditions and on such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant. The Series A Preferred Stock ranks senior to the shares of our common stock with respect to dividend rights and holders of Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to a cumulative dividend at the rate of 2.0% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears, as set forth in the Certificate of Designation of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock.

  

 S-7 

 

  

DILUTION

 

If you invest in our common stock, your interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the offering price and the adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering.

 

Our net tangible book value on September 30, 2020 was approximately $3,932,000, or $0.20 per share. “Net tangible book value” is total assets minus the sum of liabilities and intangible assets. “Net tangible book value per share” is net tangible book value divided by the total number of shares outstanding.

 

After giving effect to the sale of shares of common stock in this offering in the aggregate amount of $3,446,481 at an assumed offering price of $0.34 per share, which is the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE American on November 16, 2020 and after deducting estimated offering commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2020 would have been approximately $7,275,087, or $0.24 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.04 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $0.10 per share to investors participating in this offering. The following table illustrates this dilution per share to investors participating in this offering:

 

Assumed public offering price per share        $0.34 
Net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2020  $0.20      
Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors purchasing our common stock in this offering  $0.04      
As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering       $0.24 
Dilution per share to investors purchasing our common stock in this offering       $0.10 

 

The above discussion and table are based on 19,842,955 shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020, which does not include the following, all as of September 30, 2020:

 

·2,460,325 shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options with a weighted-average exercise price of $3.62 per share;
·4,000,000 shares of common stock which were reserved for future equity awards that may be granted in the future under our equity incentive plans; and
·2,268,000 shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of the outstanding Series A convertible preferred stock;
·3,605,217 shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of the outstanding Series B convertible preferred stock;

·18,714,999 shares of our common stock reserved for issuance upon the exercise of outstanding warrants, each with a weighted-average exercise price of $3.24 per share.

 

The above illustration of dilution per share to investors participating in this offering assumes no exercise of outstanding options to purchase our common stock or outstanding warrants to purchase shares of our common stock. To the extent that any of these outstanding options or warrants are exercised or we issue additional shares under our equity incentive plans, there will be further dilution to new investors. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

 

 S-8 

 

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We entered into an At Market Issuance Sales Agreement, dated August 5, 2016, with B. Riley, as amended by amendment no. 1, dated May 7, 2018As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we have sold an aggregate of 3,545,831 shares of our common stock (on a post 2018 split basis) having an aggregate offering price of $12,496,747 under the sales agreement with B. Riley.

 

The sales, if any, of shares made under the sales agreement will be made by any method that is deemed an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act, as amended. We may instruct B. Riley not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us from time to time. We or B. Riley may suspend the offering of common stock upon notice and subject to other conditions.

 

B. Riley will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement as agreed upon by us and B. Riley. Each time we wish to issue and sell common stock under the sales agreement, we will notify B. Riley of the number of shares to be issued, the time period during which such sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of shares that may be sold in one day, any minimum price below which sales may not be made and other sales parameters as we deem appropriate. Once we have so instructed B. Riley, unless B. Riley declines to accept the terms of the notice, B. Riley has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such shares up to the amount specified on such terms. The obligations of B. Riley under the sales agreement to sell our common stock are subject to a number of conditions that we must meet.

 

We will pay B. Riley commissions for its services in acting as agent in the sale of common stock. B. Riley will be paid a commission in an amount equal to up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We have also agreed to reimburse B. Riley for certain specified expenses, including the fees and disbursements of its legal counsel in an amount not to exceed $30,000. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding commissions and reimbursements payable to B. Riley under the terms of the sales agreement, will be approximately $150,000.

 

Settlement for sales of common stock will generally occur on the second business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and B. Riley in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, B. Riley will with respect to sales effected in an “at the market offering,” be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of B. Riley will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to B. Riley against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

The offering of our common stock pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the sale of all of our common stock subject to the sales agreement, or (ii) termination of the sales agreement as provided therein. We may terminate the sales agreement at any time upon five days’ prior notice to B. Riley and B. Riley may terminate the sales agreement at any time upon ten days’ prior notice to us.

 

B. Riley and its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, B. Riley will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus supplement.

 

This summary of the material provisions of the sales agreement does not purport to be a complete statement of its terms and conditions. A copy of the initial sales agreement, dated August 5, 2016, has been filed with the SEC as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K, dated August 5, 2016, and amendment no. 1 to the sales agreement filed with the SEC on May 15, 2018 as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K.

 

This prospectus supplement in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by B. Riley and B. Riley may distribute this prospectus supplement electronically.

 

 S-9 

 

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

Gracin & Marlow, LLP, New York, New York is representing us in connection with the offering. The validity of the securities offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Parsons Behle & Latimer, Reno, Nevada. Duane Morris LLP, New York, New York is acting as counsel for B. Riley in connection with this offering.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements of Synthetic Biologics, Inc. as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and for the years then ended, incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement have been so incorporated in reliance on the reports of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting. The report on the consolidated financial statements contains an explanatory paragraph regarding our ability to continue as a going concern.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC under the Securities Act. The rules and regulations of the SEC allow us to omit from this prospectus supplement certain information included in the registration statement. For further information about us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus supplement, you should refer to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed with the registration statement. With respect to the statements contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus regarding the contents of any agreement or any other document, in each instance, the statement is qualified in all respects by the complete text of the agreement or document, a copy of which has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement.

 

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC under the Exchange Act. The SEC maintains an Internet website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information about issuers, like us, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov. In addition, all of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement may be accessed via the Internet at our website: www.syntheticbiologics.com. We have not incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement the information on our website, and you should not consider it to be a part of this prospectus supplement.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with it which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents instead of having to repeat the information in this prospectus supplement. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings made with the SEC (other than any portions of any such documents that are not deemed “filed” under the Exchange Act in accordance with the Exchange Act and applicable SEC rules) under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after (i) the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, and (ii) the date of this prospectus supplement and before the completion of the offerings of the shares of our common stock included in this prospectus supplement.

 

·Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on February 20, 2020 (File No. 001-12584);
·Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2020, June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2020 filed with the SEC on May 5, 2020, August 6, 2020 and November 10, 2020 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q/A filed with the SEC on November 12, 2020;
·Our current reports on Form 8-K (File No. 001-12584) filed with the SEC on January 7, 2020, February 7, 2020, August 5, 2020, September 18, 2020, October 2, 2020; and November 12, 2020;
·Our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A filed with the SEC on August 4, 2020 (File No. 001-12584); and
·The description of our common stock set forth in our registration statement on Form 8-A12B, filed with the SEC on June 20, 2007 (File No. 000-12584), as updated by the description of our common stock filed as Exhibit 4.16 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

 

Any statement contained in this prospectus supplement or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus supplement to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus supplement.

 

We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus supplement, including exhibits which are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents to Synthetic Biologics, Inc., Attn: Steven A. Shallcross, Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, 9605 Medical Center Drive, Suite 270, Rockville, Maryland 20850, or telephoning us at (301) 417-4364.

 

You should rely only on information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus supplement or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying base prospectus. We are not making offers to sell the securities in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.

 

 S-10 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

 

$200,000,000

Common Stock
Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

 

 

 

We may offer and sell up to $200,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities.

 

Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.

 

We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

 

 

 

This prospectus may not be used to sell securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. SEE THE “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 8 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.

 

Our common stock is listed on the NYSE American LLC under the symbol “SYN.” The last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE American LLC on May 3, 2018 was $0.23 per share. We urge prospective purchasers of our common stock to obtain current information about the market prices of our common stock.

 

 

 

 

On February 22, 2018, the date we filed our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, we became subject to the offering limits in General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3. As of the date of this prospectus, the aggregate market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 is $44,622,699, which is calculated based on 114,799,845 shares of our common stock outstanding held by non-affiliates and a price of $0.3887 per share, the closing price of our common stock on March 16, 2018, which is the highest closing sale price of our common stock on the NYSE American LLC within the prior 60 days of this prospectus. During the prior 12 calendar month period that ends on and includes the date hereof, we have not offered or sold any shares of our common stock pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 to Form S-3.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of the prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is May 15, 2018

 

 

 

  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    Page
     
About this Prospectus   i
Industry and Market Data   ii
Prospectus Summary   1
Risk Factors   8
Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements   8
Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges and Preferred Stock Dividends   9
Use of Proceeds   9
Dividend Policy   9
Description of Capital Stock   10
Description of Debt Securities   15
Description of Warrants   22
Description of Units   24
Legal Ownership of Securities   25
Plan of Distribution   28
Legal Matters   30
Experts   30
Where You Can Find More Information   30
Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference   30
Disclosure of the Securities and Exchange Commission Position on Indemnification for Securities Act Liabilities   31

 

You should rely only on the information we have provided or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any prospectus supplement. This prospectus and any prospectus supplement is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information contained in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplement is accurate only as of their respective dates and that any information we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any prospective supplement or any sale of securities. The registration statement containing this prospectus, including the exhibits to the registration statement, provides additional information about us and the common stock offered under this prospectus. The registration statement, including the exhibits and the documents incorporated herein by reference, can be read on the Securities and Exchange Commission website or at the Securities and Exchange Commission offices mentioned under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, (the “SEC”), using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time and in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $200,000,000 of securities as described in this prospectus. We have provided to you in this prospectus a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time that we offer and sell securities under this shelf registration statement, we will, to the extent required by law, provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that will contain specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus, you should rely on the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus; provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date — for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus — the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference.”

 

Unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to “Synthetic” the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Synthetic Biologics, Inc., a Nevada corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise specified. When we refer to “you,” we mean the holders of the applicable series of securities.

 

i

 

 

INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

 

We obtained the industry and market data in this prospectus from our own research as well as from industry and general publications, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. These data involve a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. In addition, projections, assumptions and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the industry in which we operate is necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us.

 

ii

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

The items in the following summary are described in more detail elsewhere in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein. This summary provides an overview of selected information and does not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our common stock. Therefore, you should carefully read the entire prospectus, any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, including the “Risk Factors” section and other documents or information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement before making any investment decision.

 

Our Business

 

We are a late-stage clinical company focused on developing therapeutics designed to preserve the microbiome to protect and restore the health of patients. Our lead candidates poised for Phase 3 development are: (1) SYN-004 (ribaxamase) which is designed to protect the gut microbiome from the effects of certain commonly used intravenous (IV) beta-lactam antibiotics for the prevention of C. difficile infection (CDI), overgrowth of pathogenic organisms and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and (2) SYN-010 which is intended to reduce the impact of methane-producing organisms in the gut microbiome to treat an underlying cause of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Our preclinical pursuits include an oral formulation of the enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) to treat both local GI disorders and systemic diseases as well as monoclonal antibody therapies for the prevention and treatment of pertussis, and novel discovery stage biotherapeutics for the treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU).

 

Our Product Pipeline

 

 

C- Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Collaboration

I- Intrexon Collaboration

T- The University of Texas at Austin Collaboration

M – Scientific Collaboration with Massachusetts General Hospital

 

1

 

 

Summary of Clinical and Preclinical Programs

 

Therapeutic Area   Product
Candidate
  Status
         
Prevention of CDI, overgrowth of pathogenic organisms and AMR (Degrade IV beta-lactam antibiotics)   SYN-004 (ribaxamase)
(oral enzyme)
 

· Reported supportive Phase 1a/1b data (1Q 2015)

 

· Reported supportive topline data from two Phase 2a clinical trials (4Q 2015 & 2Q 2016)

 

· Initiated Phase 2b proof-of-concept clinical trial (3Q 2015)

 

· Received USAN approval of the generic name “ribaxamase” for SYN-004 (July 2016)

 

· Completed Enrollment of Phase 2b proof-of-concept clinical trial (3Q 2016)

 

· Awarded contract by the CDC (4Q 2016)

 

· Announced positive topline data from Phase 2b proof-of-concept clinical trial, including achievement of primary endpoint of significantly reducing CDI (1Q 2017)

 

· Announced additional results from Phase 2b proof-of-concept clinical trial demonstrating SYN-004 (ribaxamase) protected and maintained the naturally occurring composition of gut microbes from antibiotic-mediated dysbiosis in treated patients (2Q 2017)

 

· Announced additional results from Phase 2b proof-of-concept clinical trial funded by a contract awarded by the CDC, demonstrating that SYN-004 (ribaxamase) prevented significant change to the presence of certain AMR genes in the gut resistome of patients receiving SYN-004 compared to placebo (3Q 2017)

 

· Presented additional supportive results regarding several exploratory endpoints from Phase 2b proof-of-concept clinical trial designed to evaluate SYN-004’s (ribaxamase) ability to protect the gut microbiome from opportunistic bacterial infections and prevent the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the gut microbiome (4Q 2017)

 

· Reached preliminary agreement with the FDA on a proposed Phase 3 clinical trial synopsis, including de-coupled co-primary endpoints designed to evaluate efficacy separate from safety in a patient population being treated with a representative selection of IV-beta-lactam antibiotics (1H 2018)

 

· Anticipated End of Phase 2 meeting with FDA to solidify remaining elements of planned Phase 3 clinical trial (2H 2018)

 

· Plan to initiate Phase 3 clinical trial(s) (2H 2019)

 

2

 

 

Treatment of IBS-C   SYN-010
(oral modified-release
lovastatin lactone)
 

· Collaboration with Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

 

· Reported supportive topline data from two Phase 2 clinical trials (4Q 2015 & 1Q 2016)

 

· Received Type C meeting responses from FDA regarding late-stage aspects of clinical pathway (2Q 2016)

 

· Presented detailed data supporting previously reported positive topline data from two Phase 2 clinical trials at DDW (May 2016)

 

· Held End of Phase 2 meeting with FDA (July 2016)

 

· Confirmed key elements of Pivotal Phase 2b/3 clinical trial design pursuant to consultations with FDA (1Q 2017)

         
        · Announced issuance of key U.S. composition of matter patent providing important intellectual property protection in the U.S until at least 2035 (Q2 2018)
         
Prevention of CDI, overgrowth of pathogenic organisms and AMR (Degrade IV carbapenem antibiotics)  

SYN-006

(oral enzyme)

 

· Identified P2A as a potent carbapenemase that is stable in the GI tract

 

· Manufactured and formulated research lot for oral delivery (2017)

 

· Demonstrated microbiome protection in a pig model if ertapenem administration (Q1 2018)

         
Prevention of CDI, overgrowth of pathogenic organisms and AMR (Degrade oral beta-lactam antibiotics)   SYN-007
(oral enzyme)
  · Preclinical work ongoing to expand the utility of SYN-004 (ribaxamase) for use with oral beta-lactam antibiotics
         
Preserve gut barrier, treat local GI inflammation, restore gut microbiome   SYN-020
(oral IAP enzyme)
 

· Generated high expressing manufacturing cell lines for intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) (1H 2017)

 

· Identified downstream process and potential tablet formulations (2H 2017)

 

· Ongoing preclinical efficacy studies

         
Prevention and treatment of pertussis   SYN-005
(monoclonal antibody
therapies)
 

· Reported supportive preclinical research findings (2014)

 

· The University of Texas at Austin (“UT Austin”) received a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to support a preclinical study to evaluate the prophylactic capability of SYN-005 (4Q 2015)

 

· Reported supportive preclinical data demonstrating hu1B7, a component of SYN-005, provided protection from pertussis for five weeks in neonatal non-human primate study (Q2 2017)

 

· Reported supportive preclinical data demonstrating that an extended half-life version of hu1B7, a component of SYN-005, provided protection from pertussis for five weeks in a non-human neonatal primate study (Q4 2017)

 

· Collaborations with Intrexon and UT Austin

 

3

 

 

Our Microbiome-Focused Pipeline

 

Our CDI and IBS-C programs are focused on protecting the healthy function of the gut microbiome, or gut flora, which is home to billions of microbial species and composed of a natural balance of both “good” beneficial species and potentially “bad” pathogenic species. When the natural balance or normal function of these microbial species is disrupted, a person’s health can be compromised. All of our programs are supported by our growing intellectual property portfolio. We are maintaining and building our patent portfolio through: filing new patent applications; prosecuting existing applications; and licensing and acquiring new patents and patent applications. Our plan remains focused on the advancement of our two late-stage clinical programs. We continue to actively manage resources in preparation for the late-stage clinical advancement of our two lead microbiome-focused clinical programs, including our pursuit of successful and viable opportunities that will allow us to establish the clinical infrastructure and financial resources necessary to successfully initiate and complete this plan.

 

Company History

 

Our predecessor, Sheffield Pharmaceuticals, Inc., was incorporated in 1986, and in 2006 engaged in a reverse merger with Pipex Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation formed in 2001. After the merger, we changed our name to Pipex Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and in October 2008 we changed our name to Adeona Pharmaceuticals, Inc. On October 15, 2009, we engaged in a merger with a wholly owned subsidiary for the purpose of reincorporating in the State of Nevada. After reprioritizing our focus on the emerging area of synthetic biologics and entering into our first collaboration with Intrexon, we amended our Articles of Incorporation to change our name to Synthetic Biologics, Inc. on February 15, 2012.

 

Corporate Information

 

Our executive offices are located at 9605 Medical Center Drive, Suite 270, Rockville, Maryland 20850. Our telephone number is (732) 332-7800, and our website address is www.syntheticbiologics.com. The information contained on our website is not part of, and should not be construed as being incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

 

4

 

 

The Securities That May Be Offered

 

We may offer shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and /or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination with other securities or as units, with a total value of up to $200,000,000 from time to time under this prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of any offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

·designation or classification;

 

·aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

 

·maturity date, if applicable;

 

·original issue discount, if any;

 

·rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

 

·redemption, conversion, exercise, exchange or sinking fund terms, if any;

 

·ranking;

 

·restrictive covenants, if any;

 

·voting or other rights, if any;

 

·conversion or exchange prices or rates, if any, and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange; and

 

·material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations, if any.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS
ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

 

We may offer and sell these securities directly to investors or to or through one or more agents, underwriters, dealers or other third parties. We or underwriters, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities to or through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

·the names of those agents or underwriters;

 

·applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

 

·details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

 

5

 

 

·the net proceeds to us.

 

Common Stock

  

We may issue shares of our common stock from time to time. We currently have authorized 350,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $.001 per share. We may offer shares of common stock alone or underlying the registered securities convertible into or exercisable for our common stock. Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors. Under our Articles of Incorporation as amended and amended and restated bylaws our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights. Because of this, the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then-outstanding preferred stock, holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably those dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by the board of directors out of legally available funds. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of common stock are entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then-outstanding shares of preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, conversion or subscription rights and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock.

 

Preferred Stock

 

We may issue shares of our preferred stock from time to time, in one or more series. Under our Articles of Incorporation, as amended, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders (unless such stockholder action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or market on which our securities are then traded), to designate and issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series (of which 120,000 shares have been designated Series A Preferred Stock and are outstanding), to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each such series, to fix the rights, preferences and privileges of the shares of each wholly unissued series and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereon and to increase or decrease the number of shares of any such series, but not below the number of shares of such series then outstanding. Any authorized and undesignated shares of preferred stock may be issued from time to time in one or more series pursuant to a resolution or resolutions providing for such issue duly adopted by our Board of Directors (authority to do so being hereby expressly vested in the Board of Directors). The Board of Directors is further authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by law, to fix by resolution or resolutions the designations, powers, preferences and rights, and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, of any wholly unissued series of preferred stock, including without limitation authority to fix by resolution or resolutions the dividend rights, dividend rate, conversion rights, voting rights, rights and terms of redemption (including sinking fund provisions), redemption price or prices, and liquidation preferences of any such series, and the number of shares constituting any such series and the designation thereof, or any of the foregoing.

 

The rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions granted to or imposed upon any series of preferred stock that we offer and sell under this prospectus and applicable prospectus supplements will be set forth in a certificate of designation relating to the series. We will incorporate by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering before the issuance of shares of that series of preferred stock. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.

 

Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of the common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in our control that may otherwise benefit holders of our common stock and may adversely affect the market price of the common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of common stock. It is not possible to state the actual effect of the issuance of any shares of preferred stock on the rights of holders of common stock until the board of directors determines the specific rights attached to that preferred stock. We have no current plans to issue any shares of preferred stock.

 

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In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the preferred stock under “Description of Capital Stock—Preferred Stock.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.

 

Debt Securities

 

We may offer general debt obligations, which may be secured or unsecured, senior or subordinated and convertible into shares of our common stock. In this prospectus, we refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities together as the “debt securities.” We may issue debt securities under a note purchase agreement or under an indenture to be entered between us and a trustee; forms of the senior and subordinated indentures are included as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The indentures do not limit the amount of securities that may be issued under them and provide that debt securities may be issued in one or more series. The senior debt securities will have the same rank as all of our other indebtedness that is not subordinated. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to our senior debt on terms set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, the subordinated debt securities will be effectively subordinated to creditors and preferred stockholders of our subsidiaries. Our Board of Directors will determine the terms of each series of debt securities being offered. This prospectus contains only general terms and provisions of the debt securities. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the particular terms of the debt securities offered thereby. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete note agreements and/or indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. Forms of indentures have been filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of debt securities being offered will be incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part from reports we file with the SEC.

 

Warrants

 

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock and/or preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or in combination with common stock and/or preferred stock. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants under “Description of Warrants.”

 

We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the warrants. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants.

 

Warrants may be issued under a warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if any, in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants.

 

Units

 

We may offer units consisting of any combination of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of these securities in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units. This prospectus contains only a summary of certain general features of the units. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the particular features of the units being offered thereby. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and will be incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is apart from reports we file with the SEC.

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should consider carefully the risks discussed under the section captioned “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and in our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), each of which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus in its entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, and the information and documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering before you make a decision to invest in our securities. If any of these events actually occur, our business, operating results, prospects or financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline and you may lose all or part of your investment.

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

Some of the statements contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus may include forward-looking statements that reflect our current views with respect to our ongoing and planned clinical trials, business strategy, business plan, financial performance and other future events. These statements include forward-looking statements both with respect to us, specifically, and the biotechnology sector, in general. We make these statements pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Statements that include the words “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “project,” “estimate,” “may,” “should,” “anticipate,” “will” and similar statements of a future or forward-looking nature identify forward-looking statements for purposes of the federal securities laws or otherwise.

 

All forward-looking statements involve inherent risks and uncertainties, and there are or will be important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated in these statements. We believe that these factors include, but are not limited to, those factors set forth under the caption “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and under the captions “Risk Factors,” “Business,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, all of which you should review carefully. Please consider our forward-looking statements in light of those risks as you read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.

 

If one or more of these or other risks or uncertainties materializes, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may vary materially from what we anticipate. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or individuals acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by this Note. Before purchasing any of our securities, you should consider carefully all of the factors set forth or referred to in this prospectus that could cause actual results to differ.

 

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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED STOCK DIVIDENDS

 

The following summary is qualified by the more detailed information appearing in the computation table found in Exhibit 12.1 to the registration statement of which this prospectus is part and the historical financial statements, including the notes to those financial statements, incorporated by reference in this prospectus. The following table sets forth our ratio of earnings to fixed charges for each of the periods indicated:

 

   Year Ended December 31 
   2017   2016   2015   2014   2013 
                         
Ratio of earnings to fixed charges (1)  N/A(2)   N/A(2)   N/A(2)   N/A(2)   N/A(2)
Ratio of earnings to fixed charges and preferred stock dividends (1)   –—    N/A(2)   N/A (2)   N/A(2)   N/A(2)

 

(1)The ratio of earnings to fixed charges is calculated pursuant to instructions of Item 503 of Regulation S-K and by dividing earnings by fixed charges.  For this purpose, “earnings” are determined by adding fixed charges to our income (loss) before income taxes adjusted for losses allocated to the non-controlling interest in our subsidiaries and “fixed charges and preferred stock dividends” consist solely of Preferred Stock Dividends.

 

(2)Earnings were insufficient to cover fixed charges for these periods. We have not included a ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013 because we did not have any preferred stock outstanding as of the dates thereof. The amount of the deficiency to cover fixed charges and the combined fixed charge and preferred stock dividends for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $25.9 million and $32.9 million, respectively. The amount of the fixed charge coverage deficiency was $38.7 million, $39.9 million, $20.5 million, and $12.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Unless otherwise set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds, if any, from the sales of securities offered by this prospectus for general corporate purposes, which may include, among other things, payment of general and administrative expenses and accounts payable, increasing our working capital and funding research and development, clinical trials and capital expenditures. In addition, we may use a portion of the net proceeds for licensing or acquiring intellectual property to incorporate into our products and product candidates or our research and development programs. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to in-license, acquire or invest in complementary businesses or products, and intellectual property, however, we have no current commitments or obligations to do so.

 

The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including our development and commercialization efforts, as well as the amount of cash used in our operations. We therefore cannot estimate with certainty the amount of net proceeds to be used for the purposes described above. We may find it necessary or advisable to use the net proceeds for other purposes, and we will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds. Pending the uses described above, we plan to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities.

 

DIVIDEND POLICY

 

We have never paid cash dividends on our common stock. Moreover, we do not anticipate paying periodic cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. We intend to use all available cash and liquid assets in the operation and growth of our business, subject to terms of any preferred stock or debt securities. Any future determination about the payment of dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will be subject to the rights of any outstanding preferred stock and will depend upon our earnings, if any, capital requirements, operating and financial conditions and on such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant. The Series A Preferred Stock ranks senior to the shares of our common stock with respect to dividend rights and holders of Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to a cumulative dividend at the rate of 2.0% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears, as set forth in the Certificate of Designation of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

Authorized Capital

 

Our authorized capital consists of 350 million shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 10 million shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share. As of May 7, 2018, 128,566,886 shares of common stock were issued and outstanding, and 120,000 shares of preferred stock were issued and outstanding.

 

Common Stock

 

We may issue shares of our common stock from time to time. We currently have authorized 350,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $.001 per share. We may offer shares of common stock alone or underlying the registered securities convertible into or exercisable for our common stock.

 

Voting. The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors, and do not have cumulative voting rights. Accordingly, the holders of a majority of the shares of our common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election.

 

Dividends. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds.

 

Liquidation. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then outstanding shares of preferred stock.

 

Rights and Preferences. The holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion or subscription rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

 

Fully Paid and Nonassessable. All of our outstanding shares of common stock are, and the shares of common stock to be issued under this prospectus will be, fully paid and nonassessable.

 

In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of our common stock under “Description of Capital Stock—Common Stock.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to any common stock being offered.

 

Preferred Stock

 

Our Board of Directors has the authority, without action by our stockholders, to designate and issue up to 10 million shares of preferred stock in one or more series or classes and to designate the rights, preferences and privileges of each series or class, which may be greater than the rights of our common stock. It is not possible to state the actual effect of the issuance of any shares of preferred stock upon the rights of holders of our common stock until our Board of Directors determines the specific rights of the holders of the preferred stock. However, the effects might include:

 

restricting dividends on our common stock;

 

diluting the voting power of our common stock;

 

impairing liquidation rights of our common stock; or

 

delaying or preventing a change in control of us without further action by our stockholders.

 

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The Board of Directors’ authority to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval could make it more difficult for a third-party to acquire control of our company, and could discourage such attempt. We have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock.

 

Series A Preferred

 

We had 120,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock outstanding as of May 7, 2018.

 

The Series A Preferred Stock ranks senior to the shares of our common stock, and any other class or series of stock issued by us with respect to dividend rights, redemption rights and rights on the distribution of assets on our voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up. Holders of Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to a cumulative dividend at the rate of 2.0% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears, as set forth in the Certificate of Designation of Series A Preferred Stock classifying the Series A Preferred Stock. The Series A Preferred Stock is convertible at the option of the holders at any time into shares of common stock at an initial conversion price of $0.54 per share, subject to certain customary anti-dilution adjustments.

 

Any conversion of Series A Preferred Stock may be settled by us in shares of common stock only.

 

The holder’s ability to convert the Series A Preferred Stock into common stock is subject to (i) a 19.99% blocker provision to comply with NYSE American Listing Rules, (ii) if so elected by the holder, a 4.99% blocker provision that will prohibit beneficial ownership of more than 4.99% of our outstanding shares common stock or voting power at any time, and (iii) applicable regulatory restrictions.

 

In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, holders of the Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to a preference on liquidation equal to the greater of (i) an amount per share equal to the stated value plus any accrued and unpaid dividends on such share of Series A Preferred Stock (the “Accreted Value”), and (ii) the amount such holders would receive in such liquidation if they converted their shares of Series A Preferred Stock (based on the Accreted Value and without regard to any conversion limitation) into shares of the common stock immediately prior to any such liquidation, dissolution or winding-up (the greater of (i) and (ii), is referred to as the “Liquidation Value”).

 

Except as otherwise required by law, the holders of Series A Preferred Stock have no voting rights, other than customary protections against adverse amendments and issuance of pari passu or senior preferred stock. Upon certain change of control events involving our company, we will be required to repurchase all of the Series A Preferred Stock at a redemption price equal to the greater of (i) the Accreted Value and (ii) the amount that would be payable upon a change of control (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) in respect of common stock issuable upon conversion of such share of Series A Preferred Stock if all outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock were converted into common stock immediately prior to the change of control.

 

On or at any time after (i) the VWAP (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) for at least 20 trading days in any 30 trading day period is greater than $2.00, subject to adjustment in the case of stock split, stock dividends or the like we have the right, after providing notice not less than 6 months prior to the redemption date, to redeem, in whole or in part, on a pro rata basis from all holders thereof based on the number of shares of Series A Preferred Stock then held, the outstanding Series A Preferred Stock, for cash, at a redemption price per share of Series A Preferred Stock of $225.00, subject to appropriate adjustment in the event of any stock dividend, stock split, combination or other similar recapitalization with respect to the Series A Preferred Stock, or (ii) the five year anniversary of the issue date, we have the right to redeem, in whole or in part, on a pro rata basis from all holders thereof based on the number of shares of Series A Preferred Stock then held, the outstanding Series A Preferred Stock, for cash, at a redemption price per share equal to the Liquidation Value.

 

Warrants

 

As of May 7, 2018, we had issued and outstanding a total of 32,054,809 warrants to purchase our common stock outstanding at a weighted-average price of $1.50.

 

On November 18, 2016, we completed a public offering of 25,000,000 shares of common stock in combination with accompanying warrants to purchase an aggregate of 50,000,000 shares of the common stock, of which warrants to purchase 25,000,000 shares of common stock are outstanding (the “Series A Warrants”). The initial per share exercise price of the Series A Warrants is $1.43 subject to adjustment as specified in the warrant agreements. The Series A Warrants may be exercised at any time until the four-year anniversary of the issuance date. The warrants include a provision that if we were to enter into a certain transaction, as defined in the agreement, the warrants would be purchased from the holder for cash.

 

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On October 10, 2014, we issued 14,059,616 units at a price of $1.47 per unit to certain institutional investors in a registered direct offering, each unit consisted of one share of our common stock and a warrant to purchase 0.5 shares of common stock. The warrants, exercisable for an aggregate of 7,029,808 shares of common stock, have an exercise price of $1.75 per share and a life of five years. The warrants vested immediately and expire on October 10, 2019.

 

Options

 

As of May 7, 2018, options to purchase an aggregate of 12,168,515 shares of common stock were outstanding under our equity incentive plans.

 

Stockholder Registration Rights

 

We are party to a registration rights agreement (the “Registration Rights Agreement”) that provides the holder of the Series A Preferred Stock with certain registration rights. Pursuant to the terms of the Registration Rights Agreement, we agreed to file a registration statement covering resales of the shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock with the SEC within 60 days following receipt of a request at any time (as long as it beneficially owns at least ten percent (10%) of our common stock then outstanding or is otherwise deemed our affiliate) and to use reasonable best efforts to have the registration statement declared effective within 120 days following receipt of such request.

 

We have agreed to pay certain penalties if the registration statement is not declared effective by the SEC on or before the required deadline. After that deadline and until such time as the registration statement is declared effective (or until we are no longer required to cause the registration statement to be declared effective), we will be required to pay additional liquidated damages.

 

Anti-Takeover Effects of Certain Provisions of our Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws

 

Our Articles of Incorporation, as amended, and amended and restated bylaws contain certain provisions that may have anti-takeover effects, making it more difficult for or preventing a third party from acquiring control of the Company or changing its board of directors and management. According to our Amended and Restated Bylaws and Articles of Incorporation, neither the holders of our common stock nor the holders of any preferred stock we may issue in the future have cumulative voting rights in the election of our directors. The lack of cumulative voting makes it more difficult for other stockholders to replace our board of directors or for a third party to obtain control of our company by replacing its board of directors.

 

Authorized but Unissued Shares

 

Our authorized but unissued shares of common stock and preferred stock will be available for future issuance without stockholder approval. We may use additional shares for a variety of purposes, including future public offerings to raise additional capital, to fund acquisitions and as employee compensation. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of common stock and preferred stock could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise.

 

Anti-Takeover Effects of Nevada Law

 

Business Combinations

 

The “business combination” provisions of Sections 78.411 to 78.444, inclusive, of the Nevada Revised Statute (the “NRS”) generally prohibit a Nevada corporation with at least 200 stockholders from engaging in various “combination” transactions with any interested stockholder for a period of two years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the transaction is approved by the board of directors prior to the date the interested stockholder obtained such status or the combination is approved by the board of directors and thereafter is approved at a meeting of the stockholders by the affirmative vote of stockholders representing at least 60% of the outstanding voting power held by disinterested stockholders, and extends beyond the expiration of the two-year period, unless:

 

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·the combination was approved by the board of directors prior to the person becoming an interested stockholder or the transaction by which the person first became an interested stockholder was approved by the board of directors before the person became an interested stockholder or the combination is later approved by a majority of the voting power held by disinterested stockholders; or

 

·if the consideration to be paid by the interested stockholder is at least equal to the highest of: (a) the highest price per share paid by the interested stockholder within the two years immediately preceding the date of the announcement of the combination or in the transaction in which it became an interested stockholder, whichever is higher, (b) the market value per share of common stock on the date of announcement of the combination and the date the interested stockholder acquired the shares, whichever is higher, or (c) for holders of preferred stock, the highest liquidation value of the preferred stock, if it is higher.

 

A “combination” is generally defined to include mergers or consolidations or any sale, lease exchange, mortgage, pledge, transfer, or other disposition, in one transaction or a series of transactions, with an “interested stockholder” having: (a) an aggregate market value equal to 5% or more of the aggregate market value of the assets of the corporation, (b) an aggregate market value equal to 5% or more of the aggregate market value of all outstanding shares of the corporation, (c) 10% or more of the earning power or net income of the corporation, and (d) certain other transactions with an interested stockholder or an affiliate or associate of an interested stockholder.

 

In general, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns (or within two years, did own) 10% or more of a corporation’s voting stock. The statute could prohibit or delay mergers or other takeover or change in control attempts and, accordingly, may discourage attempts to acquire our company even though such a transaction may offer our stockholders the opportunity to sell their stock at a price above the prevailing market price.

 

Control Share Acquisitions

 

The “control share” provisions of Sections 78.378 to 78.3793, inclusive, of the NRS apply to “issuing corporations” that are Nevada corporations with at least 200 stockholders, including at least 100 stockholders of record who are Nevada residents, and that conduct business directly or indirectly in Nevada. The control share statute prohibits an acquirer, under certain circumstances, from voting its shares of a target corporation’s stock after crossing certain ownership threshold percentages, unless the acquirer obtains approval of the target corporation’s disinterested stockholders. The statute specifies three thresholds: one-fifth or more but less than one-third, one-third but less than a majority, and a majority or more, of the outstanding voting power. Generally, once an acquirer crosses one of the above thresholds, those shares in an offer or acquisition and acquired within 90 days thereof become “control shares” and such control shares are deprived of the right to vote until disinterested stockholders restore the right. These provisions also provide that if control shares are accorded full voting rights and the acquiring person has acquired a majority or more of all voting power, all other stockholders who do not vote in favor of authorizing voting rights to the control shares are entitled to demand payment for the fair value of their shares in accordance with statutory procedures established for dissenters’ rights.

 

A corporation may elect to not be governed by, or “opt out” of, the control share provisions by making an election in its articles of incorporation or bylaws, provided that the opt-out election must be in place on the 10th day following the date an acquiring person has acquired a controlling interest, that is, crossing any of the three thresholds described above. We have not opted out of the control share statutes, and will be subject to these statutes if we are an “issuing corporation” as defined in such statutes.

 

The effect of the Nevada control share statutes is that the acquiring person, and those acting in association with the acquiring person, will obtain only such voting rights in the control shares as are conferred by a resolution of the stockholders at an annual or special meeting. The Nevada control share law, if applicable, could have the effect of discouraging takeovers of our company.

 

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Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Corporate Stock Transfer, Inc. The transfer agent’s address is 3200 Cherry Creek South Drive, Suite 430, Denver, Colorado 80209. The transfer agent for any series of preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus will be named and described in the prospectus supplement for that series.

 

Listing on the NYSE American LLC

 

Our common stock is listed on the NYSE American LLC under the symbol “SYN.”

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements or free writing prospectuses, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. We may issue debt securities, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. The terms of any debt securities we offer under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below. However, no prospectus supplement shall fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness. As of the date of this prospectus, we have no outstanding registered debt securities. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the “indentures,” we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

 

We will issue any senior debt securities under the senior indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the senior indenture. We will issue any subordinated debt securities under the subordinated indenture and any supplemental indentures that we will enter into with the trustee named in the subordinated indenture. We have filed forms of these documents as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

 

The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”). We use the term “trustee” to refer to either the trustee under the senior indenture or the trustee under the subordinated indenture, as applicable.

 

The following summaries of material provisions of the senior debt securities, the subordinated debt securities and the indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture and any supplemental indentures applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. Except as we may otherwise indicate, the terms of the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are identical.

 

General

 

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our Board of Directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in an officers’ certificate or by a supplemental indenture. Debt securities may be issued in separate series without limitation as to aggregate principal amount. We may specify a maximum aggregate principal amount for the debt securities of any series. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

  the title;
     
  the principal amount being offered and if a series, the total amount authorized and the total amount outstanding;
     
  any limit on the amount that may be issued;
     
  whether or not we will issue the series of debt securities in global form and, if so, the terms and who the depositary will be;
     
  the maturity date;
     
  whether and under what circumstances, if any, we will pay additional amounts on any debt securities held by a person who is not a United States person for tax purposes, and whether we can redeem the debt securities if we have to pay such additional amounts;

 

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  the annual interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;
     
  whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;
     
  the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;
     
  the place where payments will be made;
     
  restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;
     
  our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;
     
  the date, if any, after which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;
     
  provisions for a sinking fund purchase or other analogous fund, if any, including the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant thereto or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option, to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;
     
  whether the indenture will restrict our ability or the ability of our subsidiaries to:

 

oincur additional indebtedness;

 

oissue additional securities;

 

ocreate liens;

 

opay dividends or make distributions in respect of our capital stock or the capital stock of our subsidiaries;

 

oredeem capital stock;

 

oplace restrictions on our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends, make distributions or transfer assets;

 

omake investments or other restricted payments;

 

osell or otherwise dispose of assets;

 

oenter into sale-leaseback transactions;

 

oengage in transactions with stockholders or affiliates;

 

oissue or sell stock of our subsidiaries; or

 

oeffect a consolidation or merger;

 

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whether the indenture will require us to maintain any interest coverage, fixed charge, cash flow-based, asset-based or other financial ratios;

 

a discussion of certain material or special United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the debt securities;

 

information describing any book-entry features;

 

the applicability of the provisions in the indenture on discharge;

 

whether the debt securities are to be offered at a price such that they will be deemed to be offered at an “original issue discount” as defined in paragraph (a) of Section 1273 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended;

 

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars; and

 

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, including any additional events of default or covenants provided with respect to the debt securities, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

Conversion or Exchange Rights

 

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms under which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock, our preferred stock or other securities (including securities of a third party). We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock, our preferred stock or other securities (including securities of a third party) that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

 

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indentures will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate. If the debt securities are convertible into or exchangeable for our other securities or securities of other entities, the person with whom we consolidate or merge or to whom we sell all of our property must make provisions for the conversion of the debt securities into securities that the holders of the debt securities would have received if they had converted the debt securities before the consolidation, merger or sale.

 

Events of Default under the Indenture

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

if we fail to pay interest when due and payable and our failure continues for 90 days and the time for payment has not been extended;

 

if we fail to pay the principal, premium or sinking fund payment, if any, when due and payable at maturity, upon redemption or repurchase or otherwise, and the time for payment has not been extended;

 

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant contained in the debt securities or the indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive notice from the trustee or we and the trustee receive notice from the holders of at least 25% of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

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if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

 

We will describe in each applicable prospectus supplement any additional events of default relating to the relevant series of debt securities.

 

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default arises due to the occurrence of certain specified bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization events, the unpaid principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity or security satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

 

The indentures provide that if an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will be required in the exercise of its powers to use the degree of care that a prudent person would use in the conduct of its own affairs. The trustee, however, may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the indenture, or that the trustee determines is unduly prejudicial to the rights of any other holder of the relevant series of debt securities, or that would involve the trustee in personal liability. Prior to taking any action under the indentures, the trustee will be entitled to indemnification against all costs, expenses and liabilities that would be incurred by taking or not taking such action.

 

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made a written request and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the trustee or security satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense or to be incurred in compliance with instituting the proceeding as trustee; and

 

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

 

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These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities, or other defaults that may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indentures.

 

The indentures provide that if a default occurs and is continuing and is actually known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee must mail to each holder notice of the default within the earlier of 90 days after it occurs and 30 days after it is known by a responsible officer of the trustee or written notice of it is received by the trustee, unless such default has been cured or waived. Except in the case of a default in the payment of principal or premium of, or interest on, any debt security or certain other defaults specified in an indenture, the trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the Board of Directors, the executive committee or a trust committee of directors, or responsible officers of the trustee, in good faith determine that withholding notice is in the best interests of holders of the relevant series of debt securities.

 

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

 

Subject to the terms of the indenture for any series of debt securities that we may issue, we and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to the following specific matters:

 

to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture;

 

to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities —Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

 

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;

 

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

 

to provide for the issuance of, and establish the form and terms and conditions of, the debt securities of any series as provided under “Description of Debt Securities — General,” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee;

 

to provide for uncertificated debt securities and to make all appropriate changes for such purpose;

 

to add such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred to us in the indenture; or

 

to change anything that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect.

 

In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, subject to the terms of the indenture for any series of debt securities that we may issue or otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may only make the following changes with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

extending the stated maturity of the series of debt securities;

 

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption or repurchase of any debt securities; or

 

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reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

 

Discharge

 

Each indenture provides that, subject to the terms of the indenture and any limitation otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we may elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

maintain paying agencies;

 

hold monies for payment in trust;

 

recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

appoint any successor trustee.

 

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, and any premium and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

 

Form, Exchange and Transfer

 

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series. See “Legal Ownership of Securities” below for a further description of the terms relating to any book-entry securities.

 

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

 

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

 

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If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

 

Information Concerning the Trustee

 

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture and is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur. However, upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs

 

Payment and Paying Agents

 

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest payment.

 

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

 

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

 

Governing Law

 

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

Ranking Debt Securities

 

The subordinated debt securities will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of subordinated debt securities that we may issue. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt. The senior debt securities will be unsecured and will rank equally in right of payment to all our other senior unsecured debt. The senior indenture does not limit the amount of senior debt securities that we may issue. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

Warrants

 

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may issue warrants independently or in combination with other securities. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as any warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants.

 

Any warrants issued under this prospectus may be evidenced by warrant certificates. Warrants also may be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.

 

The following description, together with the additional information that we include in any applicable prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be distributed to you, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may be issued in one or more series. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be distributed to you. The following description of warrants will apply to the warrants offered by this prospectus unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement for a particular series of warrants may specify different or additional terms.

 

The summary below and that contained in any prospectus supplement is qualified in its entirety by reference to all of the provisions of the warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, applicable to a particular series of securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contains the terms of the warrants.

 

General

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants being offered, including:

 

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

if applicable, the number of warrants issued with each such security;

 

the number of shares of common stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

 

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

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the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

 

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

 

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

 

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including the right to receive dividends, if any, or payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any:

 

Exercise of Warrants

 

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. The warrants may be exercised as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, warrants may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered thereby. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

 

Upon receipt of payment and the warrant or warrant certificate, as applicable, properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office, including ours, indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If less than all of the warrants (or the warrants represented by such warrant certificate) are exercised, a new warrant or a new warrant certificate, as applicable, will be issued for the remaining warrants.

 

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

 

Each warrant agent, if any, will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A warrant agent may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

 

Governing Law

 

Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and any warrant agreements will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

Units

 

We may issue units consisting of any combination of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, and warrants. We will issue each unit so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. As a result, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.

 

The summary below and that contained in any prospectus supplement is qualified in its entirety by reference to all of the provisions of the unit agreement and/or unit certificate, and depositary arrangements, if applicable. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the units that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete unit agreement and/or unit certificate, and depositary arrangements, as applicable, that contain the terms of the units.

 

We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of unit agreement and/or unit certificate, and depositary arrangements, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of units we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such units.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement, information incorporated by reference or free writing prospectus may describe:

 

·the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

·any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer, or exchange of the units or of the securities composing the units;

 

·whether the units will be issued in fully registered or global form; and

 

·any other terms of the units.

 

The applicable provisions described in this section, as well as those described under “Description of Capital Stock,” “Description of Debt Securities” and “Description of Warrants” above, will apply to each unit and to each security included in each unit, respectively.

 

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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

 

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee, depositary or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

 

Book-Entry Holders

 

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in any applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

 

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Securities issued in global form will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for securities issued in global form, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

 

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

 

Street Name Holders

 

We may terminate a global security or issue securities in non-global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

 

For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any applicable trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

 

Legal Holders

 

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee and of any third parties employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the legal holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that legal holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the legal holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of the indenture or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.

 

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Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

 

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

·how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

·whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

·how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

·whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

·how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

·if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

 

Global Securities

 

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

 

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in any applicable prospectus supplement, The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

 

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

 

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued in global form only, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

 

Special Considerations for Global Securities

 

The rights of an indirect holder relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

 

If securities are issued only in the form of a global security, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

·an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;

 

·an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank, broker or other financial institution for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

 

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·an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

 

·an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in a global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

·the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in a global security;

 

·we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in a global security, nor do we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

 

·the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in a global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your bank, broker or other financial institution may require you to do so as well; and

 

·financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in a global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

 

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

 

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

 

In a few special situations described below, the global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks, brokers or other financial institutions to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own name, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

 

Unless we provide otherwise in any applicable prospectus supplement, the global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

·if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

·if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

·if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and such default has not been cured or waived.

 

The prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by any applicable prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and not we or any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods or through underwriters or dealers, through agents and/or directly to one or more purchasers. The securities may be distributed from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

at negotiated prices.

 

Each time that we sell securities covered by this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement or supplements that will describe the method of distribution and set forth the terms and conditions of the offering of such securities, including

 

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents;

 

the amounts of securities underwritten or purchased by each of them;

 

the purchase price of securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

 

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

any underwriting discounts or commissions or agency fees and other items constituting underwriters’ or agents’ compensation;

 

the public offering price of the securities;

 

any discounts, commissions or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

 

Offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus may be solicited directly. Agents may also be designated to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of our securities will be identified in a prospectus supplement.

 

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, the securities will be sold to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale. The name of the dealer and the terms of the transaction will be set forth in the prospectus supplement.

 

If an underwriter is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, an underwriting agreement will be executed with the underwriter at the time of sale and the name of any underwriter will be provided in the prospectus supplement that the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we, or the purchasers of securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for which they may act as agent. Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, an agent will be acting on a best efforts basis and a dealer will purchase securities as a principal, and may then resell the securities at varying prices to be determined by the dealer.

 

Any compensation paid to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers will be provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof and to reimburse those persons for certain expenses.

 

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Any common stock will be listed on the NYSE American, LLC or any other market for our common stock, but any other securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. To facilitate the offering of securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than were sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option, if any. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

 

If indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, underwriters or other persons acting as agents may be authorized to solicit offers by institutions or other suitable purchasers to purchase the securities at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement, pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date or dates stated in the prospectus supplement. These purchasers may include, among others, commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies and educational and charitable institutions. Delayed delivery contracts will be subject to the condition that the purchase of the securities covered by the delayed delivery contracts will not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of any jurisdiction in the United States to which the purchaser is subject. The underwriters and agents will not have any responsibility with respect to the validity or performance of these contracts.

 

We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

 

The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

 

Gracin & Marlow, LLP, New York, New York will pass upon certain legal matters relating to the issuance and sale of the debt securities, warrants and units offered hereby on our behalf and Parsons Behle & Latimer, Reno, Nevada will pass on certain legal matters related to the issuance and sale of the common stock and preferred stock offered hereby on our behalf. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers, of agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

EXPERTS

 

The financial statements of Synthetic Biologics, Inc. as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 and for each of the three years ended in the period ended December 31, 2017 and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017 incorporated by reference in this prospectus have been so incorporated in reliance on the reports of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting. The report on the financial statements contains an explanatory paragraph regarding our ability to continue as a going concern.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s public reference room located at 100 F Street N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the public reference room. Our public filings are also available to the public at the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov.

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC under the Securities Act. This prospectus does not contain all of the information in the registration statement. We have omitted certain parts of the registration statement, as permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC. You may inspect and copy the registration statement, including exhibits, at the SEC’s public reference room or Internet site.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with it which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents instead of having to repeat the information in this prospectus. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings made with the SEC (other than any portions of any such documents that are not deemed “filed” under the Exchange Act in accordance with the Exchange Act and applicable SEC rules) under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after (i) the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, and (ii) the date of this prospectus and before the completion of the offerings of the securities included in this prospectus.

 

·Our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 filed with the SEC on February 22, 2018 (File No. 001-12584);

 

·Our current reports on Form 8-K (File No. 001-12584) filed with the SEC on January 8, 2018, March 7, 2018; April 23, 2018 and May 7, 2018;

 

·Our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A filed with the SEC on July 18, 2017 (File No. 001-12584); and

 

·The description of our common stock set forth in our registration statement on Form 8-A12B, filed with the SEC on June 20, 2007 (File No. 000-12584).

 

You may obtain, free of charge, a copy of any of these documents (other than exhibits to these documents unless the exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into these documents or referred to in this prospectus) by writing or calling us at the following address and telephone number: Synthetic Biologics, Inc., 9605 Medical Center Drive, Ste. 270, Rockville, Maryland 20850. Our telephone number is (301) 417-4364.

 

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DISCLOSURE OF SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION POSITION ON INDEMNIFICATION
FOR SECURITIES ACT LIABILITIES

 

Our amended and restated bylaws and Articles of Incorporation, as amended, contain provisions that permit us to indemnify our directors and officers to the full extent permitted by Nevada law, and our Articles of Incorporation, as amended, contain provisions that eliminate the personal liability of our directors in each case for monetary damages to us or our stockholders for breach of their fiduciary duties, except to the extent that Nevada law prohibits indemnification or elimination of liability. These provisions do not limit or eliminate our rights or the rights of any stockholder to seek an injunction or any other non-monetary relief in the event of a breach of a director’s or officer’s fiduciary duty. In addition, these provisions apply only to claims against a director or officer arising out of his or her role as a director or officer and do not relieve a director or officer from liability if he or she engaged in willful misconduct or a knowing violation of the criminal law or any federal or state securities law.

 

The rights of indemnification provided in our amended and restated bylaws are not exclusive of any other rights that may be available under any insurance or other agreement, by vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling us pursuant to the foregoing provisions, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC this type of indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

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Up to $3,446,481 of Shares

 

Common Stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

B. RILEY SECURITIES

 

November 17, 2020